18 Multiple Choice Questions related to NCERT 6th Class (CBSE) Science: Fibre to Fabric Quiz:
- Synthetic fibre are man – made fibres made from plastic and petroleum products. Fore example: Nylone, Rayon etc. They are also made from chemicals.
- The process o separating the the cotton fibres from its seeds is called ginning.
- The process of rotting the stems of the plants in water to remove the sticky substance and separate fibres is called retting.
Fibre to Fabric Quiz – Summary
Clothes are made of fabric. And fabrics are made of fibres. Fabric is synonym of cloth. Fabric is not only used in making of clothes, rather fabrics are used in making bed–sheets, bags, door mats, mats, and many endless items.
Variety in Fabrics
There are many types of fabrics. Wool, cotton, silk, jute, nylon etc are the name of some of the fabrics. Some fabrics appear shiny while some appear very dull. Some fabrics keep us warm while some of the fabric we like to use in summer. Fabrics depend upon fibres from which it is made.
It is the fibre which makes fabrics. Fibres can be classified into two types
(a) Natural Fibre
(b) Artificial or Synthetic Fibre
(a) Natural Fibre
Fibres that we get from nature are called natural fibres. For example cotton, wool, silk, and jute, etc. are examples of Natural Fibres.
(b) Artificial Fibre
Fibres made in laboratory are called man–made fibre or synthetic fibres. For example nylon, polyester, acrylic, terricot, etc.
Types of Natural Fibre
Natural fibres further can be classified into two groups.
(i) Plant fibre
(ii) Animal fibre
(i) Plant fibre
Fibres which we get from plants source are called Plant Fibres. For example cotton, jute, flex, coconut fibre (coir), etc.
(ii) Animal Fibre
Fibres, we get from animals are called Animal Fibres. For example wool and silk.
We get wool from sheep, goat, camel, etc. Sheep, goat, camel, etc. have thick layer of hair on their body, which protect them from harsh climate. Hair of their body is called fleece. This fleece is cut out and called wool.
We get silk from silk worm.
Some Plant Fibres
Cotton is cultivated in the field. In India cotton is known for 1800 BC. Cultivation of cotton needs warm climate and black clayey soil. Cotton is cultivated almost in the every part of India. Cotton fibre is cultivated at large scale in the State of Maharastra, Gujrat, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh.
Cotton is shown in early spring. Its plants are about 1 to 2 metre in height. Cotton plant takes 60 days in flowering. Cotton flower turns into fruit. Fruits of cotton are spherical in shape. Cotton fruits have lemon type shape and size. Cotton fruits are called Cotton Bolls.
After maturing, the Cotton Bolls burst open and seeds covered with Cotton Fibre become visible. The colour of Cotton Fibre is white. Cotton Fibre is called Cotton Wool also. A cotton file looks like a field covered with snow.
Processing of Cotton
Cotton Bolls are picked up by hand from field. After picking up, seeds inside the Cotton Bolls are separated by combing. The process of combing to separate out seeds from Cotton Bolls is called Ginning of cotton.
Ginning of cotton is traditionally done manually. These days, machine is used for Ginning. Machine which is used in combing of cotton is called Ginning Machine.
Ginned cotton is compressed in bales. The weight of one bale is up to 200kg. Cotton bales are then sent to the desired places like in the spinning mills.
Use of cotton
Some of the uses of cotton are given below:
(a) In making fabrics
(b) In hospitals sterilized cotton is used as absorbent.
(c) In bandage which is made up of cotton, is used in hospitals for dressing.
(d) As filler in mattress, pillow, quilt etc.
(e) The cottonseed oil which is edible oil is obtained from cotton seeds.
Jute is cultivated to obtain jute fibre. Jute is called patsun, paat or patua in Hindi. Jute plant is cultivated mainly in Indian subcontinent and in Arfican countries.
Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant. Jute fibre is cultivated during the rainy season. After cutting of jute plants it is left for some days in the field when leaves are dried up these are immersed in stagnant water. In stagnant water gummy matter that holds the fibres with its stem is eaten away by bacteria. This process is called Retting.
In few days jute stems rot completely. After retting, jute fibres are separated by hand.
The fibrous part is dried and tied in bundles and sent to the factories. Jute fibres are long, rough, coarse but not very strong.
Use of jute
Some of the uses of jute fibre are given below:
(a) Jute fibre is used for making gunny sacks, mats, door mats, ropes etc.
(b) Some fine jute fibres are used to make fabric for clothes.
(c) As environment friendly nature of jute fibre, handbags made from it became very popular thesedays.
Like Jute, Flax fibre is obtained from the stem of the Flax plant. After cutting of flax plants these are left for Retting. In stagnant water gummy matter that holds the fibres is destroyed by bacteria.
Once stem of flax plants rots compeletely flax fibres are separated from it. Separation of fibre from its stem is called Scutching. Separated fibres then tied into bundles and sent to factories for further process.
Fibres of flax are soft, shiny and long.
Use of flax fibres
Some of the uses of flax fibre are given below
(a) Flax fibres are used in making linen and laces.
(b) It is used for making fishing lines and nets.
(c) Some fine papers like cigarette paper is made from flax fibre.
(d) The seeds are used to make linseed oil which is used for mixing in paints and varnishes. It is also used for making linoleum.
Coir is a kind of plant fibre which is obtained from coconut. Coir fibre is used in making ropes, door mat, mattress etc.
Spinning Cotton Yarn
The cotton bales is loosened and cleaned. The loosening and cleaning of Cotton Bales is called Carding.
Then cotton fibres are converted into a rope like loose strand, these strands are called silver. Strands are the pulled and twisted to make yarn. Twisting makes yarn stronger. This process of pulling and twisting of cotton is called Spinning.
Now a days spinning is done by machine in the spinning mills.
A simple device which was used for spinning the strands by hand is called “Charkha” and other tool is called “Takli”.
Mahatma Gandhi used Charkha as a symbol of freedom weapons against English in the Struggle for Freedom. He encouraged people to wear clothes made of homespun yarn and shun imported cloth made in the mills of Britain.
Yarn into fabric
After spinning, yarns are used in making of fabrics. Weaving and Knitting are two main processes used for making yarn to fabric.
The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is called weaving.
In the process of Weaving a continuous thread or threads (this set of thread is called weft) back and forth across a set of lengthwise threads (this set of thread is called warp) so that both set of threads are interlaced.
Weaving of fabric is done on looms. The looms are either hand operated or power operated.
Hand operated loom is called Handloom. And power operated loom is called Powerloom.
Knitting is also a process to make fabric using yarn. In knitting a single yarn is used to make a fabric.
Knitting is done by hand and also on machine.
Socks, sweater etc are example of knitted fabrics.
Weaving and knitting are used for making different kinds of fabrics. These fabrics are used for a variety of clothing items.
History of Clothing Material
In ancient times people were not civilized and they used to live in forest without any clothes, i.e. naked. With the lapse of time to protect from harsh climate people started cover their body using bark and big leaves of trees or animal skins and furs.
Gradually, they learnt to twine grass and fibre of trees and weaved it to make longer piece which they used to cover their waist as modern skirts. They also learnt to twine the animal hairs to make robes like outfits.
A revolution came after the invention of stitching needle about 50,000 years ago. With the help of stitching needle people started to stitch the clothes made of bark and fibre of trees and animals which can fit in their body.
After learning the agriculture people started to weave the plant materials by hand to make cloths.
People of China and Egypt started to make cloths from cotton. In ancient period when stitching was not known, people simply draped the fabrics around different parts of their body. Many different ways of draping fabrics were used. Even today saree, dhoti, lungi or turban is used as an un–stitched piece of fabric.
Initially people started to wear cloths to protect their body from harsh climate. Slowly clothes become the material of fashion along with protection from harsh climates.
Today doors and windows also are decorated with beautiful curtains. Different types of bed-sheets, table cloths, etc are used to beautify homes. Clothes of different design are used to cover and beautify our body. Fibre, fabrics and clothes production became one of the biggest industries today.