Question: ‘The availability of resources is the only condition for the development of any region’. What is your opinion on the statement? Explain.
Mention any three necessary conditions for the development of resources.
- Resources can contribute to development only when they are accompanied by appropriate technological development and institutional changes.
- There is need for quality of human resources i.e. skilled workers who can convert natural resources into more usable form.
- There is also a need for capital which is required to develop technology.
Question: Explain the relationship between nature, technology and institutions.
Answer: Nature contains resources. These resources are converted into usable form with the help of technology. Human beings interact with nature through technology, and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
Question: ‘India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources’. Explain.
“India is rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources”. Support your answer with examples.
- The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in mineral resources but lack industrialization.
- Arunachal Pradesh has an abundance of water resources, but lacks in infrastructural development. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources. The cold desert area of Ladakh is relatively isolated from the rest of the country due to lack of means of transportation and communication.
- Most of North-Eastern states are rich in natural vegetation but lacks in fertile soil.
Question: Study the following data carefully and answer the questions that follow:
LAND FEATURES OF INDIA
Land Features Area Covered (in percentage)
(1) Plains 43%
(2) Mountains 30%
(3) Plateaus 27%
(i) Name the land feature which occupies the highest surface area of India.
(ii) Give two advantages of the above land feature.
- The plains (43%) occupy the highest surface area of India.
- (a) The plains provide opportunity for crop farming.
(b) The plains have good climatic conditions for human habitation.
Question: HOW over-irrigation and mining lead to land degradation?
How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation? Which states of India face this problem?
Answer: Over-irrigation and mining lead to land degradation as:
- Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water-logging which leads to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. Water logging is a major issue in Punjab, Haryana, UR
- The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantities of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.
Question: Explain the major factors which are responsible for the formation of soil.
Explain any three factors responsible for the formation of soil.
- Relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
- Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
- Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important.
- Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
Question: Mention the criteria on the basis of which Indian soils can be classified.
- Factors responsible for soil formation.
- Chemical and Physical properties.
Question: Explain the distribution of alluvial soils.
- This is the most widely spread and important soil of India.
- These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.
- Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and Kaveri rivers.
Question: With reference to alluvial soil answer the following questions-
(1) How is it classified on the basis of its age?
(2) Alluvial soil as a whole is very fertile. Give reasons.
- On the basis of age alluvial soil is classified as Bangar and Khadar.
- Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
Question: Explain the distribution of black soil.
- Black soil is typical of the Deccan trap region spread over northwest Deccan plateau.
- They cover the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
- They are also found in the Godavari and Krishna valleys.
Question: Which soil is considered ideal for growing cotton? How is the soil formed?
Answer: Black soil. These soils have been formed due to the weathering of the lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau and different climatic conditions.
Question: (1) Which soils develop on crystalline igneous rocks?
(2) Why do the soils develop a reddish colour?
(3) Name any two states where this soil is found.
- Red soil
- The soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
- Odisha and Chhattisgarh
Question: Mention the factors on which the land- use pattern of India depends upon.
Answer: The use of land is determined by physical as well as human factors.
- Physical factors: Topography, climate and soil types.
- Human factors: Population density, technological capability, culture and traditions.
Question: (1) ‘Humus content of the laterite soil is very low.’ Explain by giving two reasons.
(2) Mention any two crops associated with the soil.
- (a) The soil is formed due to intense leaching. So the nutrients of the soil are washed away by heavy rains.
(b) The soil is formed in the regions of high temperature. So most of the micro¬organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed.
- Tea and Coffee.
Question: (1) ‘The arid soil lacks humus and moisture’. Explain.
(2) Name any two states where this soil is formed.
- The arid soil is found in dry climatic conditions. Due to dry climate and high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
- Rajasthan and Gujarat