Question:Explain the classification of resources on the basis of the state of development.
Distinguish between stock resources and reserve resources.
- Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized due to lack of capital or other reasons. For example: the western parts of India, particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far, these have not been developed properly.
- Developed Resources: These are resources which have been surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization. The development of resources depends on technology and the level of their feasibility. For example, India has a cumulative total of about 2,47,847 million tonnes of coal resources.
Water: Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. → Stock
Water has potential energy and can be used to produce hydroelectricity → Reserve
- Stock: These are the materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy the human needs but cannot be
used as the human beings do not have the appropriate technology to convert them into usable form. For example, water (H2O) is a compound of two inflammable gases, i.e., hydrogen and oxygen, but human beings do not have the required technology to use them as a source of energy.
- Reserves: These are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the existing technology, but their uses have been postponed keeping in mind the needs of the future generations. For example, India has sufficient amount of forests to fulfill the needs of the present generation, but they are being protected for the future generations.
Question: Distinguish between Renewable and Non renewable resources.
Answer: Renewable Resources:
- These are those resources which can be renewed in a short time.
- These do not cause any pollution to the environment.
- These are the free gifts of nature.
- Air, water and solar energy are some of the renewable resources.
- These are those resources which cannot be renewed in a short time.
- These cause pollution to the environment.
- These are not the free gift of nature.
- Mineral, oil and coal are some of the non-renewable resources.
Question: HOW is land a natural resource of utmost importance ? Explain with four facts.
“Land is a natural resource of utmost importance”. Elaborate the statement with the help of suitable examples highlighting the value of land resource.
Answer: Land is an important natural resource, because:
- All economic activities are performed on land.
- It supports natural vegetation and wildlife.
- Most of the minerals are formed in land.
- It is used for transport and communication system.
Question: Which is the most widely spread and important soil of India ? State any six characteristics of this type of soil.
Mention any four characteristics of alluvial soils.
How are alluvial soils formed ? How is Bangar different from Khadar?
- Alluvial soils are transported soils. Most of the soils are derived from the sediments deposited by rivers as in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Thus, the parent material of these soils is of transported origin.
- These soils consist of varying proportion of sand, silt and clay. In the upper course of the river, the soil is coarse. In the middle course, it is medium, and fine grained in the lower course.
- Apart from the size of their grains or particles, soils are described according to their age as well. They are old alluvium and new alluvium. Locally, the old alluvium is called ‘Bhangar’ and the new alluvium is called ‘Khadar’.
- The old alluvium often contains kankar, nodules, with calcium carbonates in the sub-soil. The new alluvium is more fertile than the old alluvium.
Question: Distinguish between Khadar and Bhangar.
Answer: Khadar (New):
- The Khadar soils are found in the low areas of the valley, bottom of a valley which are flooded every year.
- These soils are finer in texture.
- The Khadar soils are more fertile as these are found in the low areas of the bottom of a valley which are flooded almost every year.
- The Bhangar soils are found in the higher reaches, about 30m above the flood level.
- These are coarser in texture.
- These soils are less fertile as these are found on the higher reaches, about 30m above the flood level.
Question: Which soil is called ‘regur soil’ ? Mention any four characteristics of this type of soil.
Answer: Black soil
- These have been formed due to withering of lava.
- The black soils are made of extremely fine materials, i.e., clayey materials.
- These soils are rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, potash and lime.
- These soils are generally poor in phosphoric content.
- The soil is well known for its capacity to hold moisture.