Question: What were the major historical developments during the medieval period?
Answer: The medieval period in India is characterized by important historical developments.
- The Muslim dynasties, particularly the Mughals, provided many centuries of political stability to the country. This led to increase in trade and the rapid growth of towns and cities.
- Trade led to a greater interaction between people from different parts of the world. India borrowed many things from the cultures of other countries.
- During the medieval period, Islam spread in India. The Bhakti and sufi movements spread the massage of devotion to god and kindness towards all human beings.
Question: List some important chronicles available for the study of the medieval period.
Answer: A chronicle is a record of the rule of kings and life at the court. Some important chronicles of the medieval period are:
- Rajatarangini by kalhana is a history of the kings of Kashmir.
- Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi by Zia-ud-din Barani which describes the history of the Sultans of Delhi till the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Khazainul-Futuh and Tughlaqnama by Amir Khusrau deal with the reign of Khaljis and Tughluqs.
Question: How are travelogues an important literary source?
Answer: Many foreign travelers visited India during the medieval period. Their travelogues give us a lot of information about the place they visited and the people they met. Their writing and letters are a very valuable source for reconstructing the history of the medieval period. Some of the well known visitors who wrote travelogues are:
- Al-Beruni, who came from Central Asia.
- Abdur Razzaq, who was sent by the ruler of Persia to the kingdom of Vijayanagar.
- Ibn Batuta, who wrote the Rihla, are few to name.
Question: Our information about the medieval period is much more than the ancient period. Explain?
Answer: Information about the medieval period is much more because:
- The books written in medieval period are available.
- The monuments still stand which tell us about the period.
Question: Who was considered a “foreigner” in the past?
Answer: In past (medieval period), foreigner is referred to any person who was not a part of the same society or culture. For example, a city-dweller might regard a forest-dweller as foreigner. But two peasants living in the same village were not foreigners to each other even though they belong to different caste or religious backgrounds.
Question: List some technological changes associated with this period.
Answer: In the thousand years between 700 to 1750, there occurred large variety of technological changes impacting social, economical, political and cultural changes. Prominent technological developments were:
- Persian wheel in irrigation.
- Spinning wheel in weaving.
- Firearms in combat.
- New food and beverages like potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee.