Thursday , July 7 2022

NCERT 7th Class (CBSE) Social Science: Democracy

Question: What are the key elements of a democracy? Explain in detail.

Answer: A modern democracy has certain important features which are enshrined in its constitution.

  1. Rule by the People: A democracy is a political system where the people choose the government through regular, free and fair elections. During elections people choose their representatives from competing parties. The people thus decide who will represent them in parliament. Thus, in a democracy, the people are the highest form of political authority. The leaders of government hold power only temporarily, i.e., as long as they enjoy the trust of the people.
  2. Justice and Equality: Justice and equality are the two pillars of democracy. Justice is to give each one what is due to him or her as a person. Equality is defined by our constitution as “every citizen is equal before the law… there shall be no discrimination by virtue of caste, sex, religion, wealth, etc.” To enjoy the equality there should be justice.
  3. Guarantee of basic human right to every citizen: In a democracy, every citizen has certain basic rights or fundamental rights that are guaranteed by the constitution of the country. These rights cannot be taken by the state. They include- The right to freedom of speech and action, The right to equality, The right to freedom of religion, The right to information, The right to travel and settle anywhere in the country, The right to associate, The right to assemble freely.
  4. The rule of law: In a democracy, there are several laws to limit the power of the government, to maintain order and protect the rights of citizens. All citizens are equal in the eyes of law. No one is above the law, not even a king or an elected president. No one may be discriminated against on the basis of their race, religion, ethnic group or gender. No one may be arrested or imprisoned, without adequate reason. Torture or ill-treatment of prisoners is forbidden. This is known as rule of law.
  5. Separation of powers: To ensure smooth and impartial governance, most democracies provide for the separation of the three bodies of government- the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
  6. Governance for the public good: In a democracy the government is elected to work for the good of the public.
  7. Participation of citizens in politics and civic life: The citizen of a democracy participate actively in its functioning. They are well informed about the issues facing the country and how they want the issues addressed. The success of a democracy depends on citizen’s peaceful participation.

Question: What are the limits and requirements of a democracy?

Answer: If democracy is to work, citizens must not only be aware of their rights and fight for them, they must also observe the principles of democratic conduct. People must respect the law and reject violence.

  1. Democracy requires compromise. Groups with different interests and opinions must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate.
  2. In a democracy, one group does not always win everything it wants. Different groups win on different issues. Over time, everyone wins something. However, if one group is always excluded and fail to be heard, it may turn against democracy in anger and frustration.
  3. Every citizen must respect the rights of fellow citizens, and their dignity as human beings. People can question the decisions of the government, but they should not reject the government’s authority.

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One comment

  1. Please also tell about political democracy.