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Physical Education

Training And Doping In Sports: 11 Class Physical Education

Training And Doping In Sports: 11th Class Chapter 10

Training And Doping In Sports – Quiz

Sports Training

  • It is a complex process which trains the players to get better at the sports competitions.

Principles Of Sports Training

Every sport person knows that their best performances come from their regular in training sessions.

  1. Principle of continuity: In this, the training session should be in continues process so that the players make their movements more efficient and there should not be any break.
  2. Principle of overload: It states that there should be great than normal load on the body for some time and adaptation is done for that level of overload so that it improves the fitness.
  3. Principle of Individual differences: Every sport person is different due ti individual differences and their response to exercise will definitely different so the trainer modifies the training programme on the basis of individual differences which leads to balanced training sessions.
  4. Principle of specificity: In this the training load is given based on specific requirements of particular sports such as endurance training is required for long distance runners and yogi required more flexibility enhancing programme.
  5. Principle of warm up and cool down: Every sports person instruct to do warm up and cooling down exercises before and after the competitions so that the blood flows smoothly in working muscles.
  6. Principle of Recovery: Rest is always required for the body to recover from exertion of training and adaptation takes place frequently.
  7. Principle of Variance: Constant repetition of similar training may development the feelings of staleness so the training must be planned with different challenges so that they can play entertaining games in between their training.

Warming Up

It prepares the muscles for vigorous actions and it a short term activity which is undertaken before the competition.

Type of Warming up

1. Psychological warming up

  • It makes the athlete mentally to bear stress.
  • It is given one to two days before the competition and ends up a few hours before the competition by giving high level motivation for encouragement.

2. Physiological warming up

  • It makes the body physically ready to bear any competitive type of stress.

Active warming up: Training And Doping In Sports

  • It can be performed by doing in two ways of exercises which are given below:
    1. General Warming Up: Jogging, running, stretching exercises, calisthenics, striding, sprints etc. these are the general exercises for enhancing the abilities and flexibility of muscles & joints.
  • 2. Specific Warming Up: In this, specific exercises are planned for enhancing the skills of particular sport. It is performed after general method. Like a basketball player can practice lay up shot before the start of play.
  • Some specific exercises are performed in such particular sport:
    1. Basketball: Dribbling, shooting, lay-up shot, dodging, free throw.
    2. Cricket: Bowling, catching, batting & fielding.
    3 Badminton: Servicing, strokes, bending forward, backward & sideways, smashing.

Passive warming up: Training And Doping In Sports

  • It does not involve any exercise, some additional measures are used which are given below:
    1. Massage of the body
    2. Use of Infrared lamp
    3. Diathermy
    4. Steam bath
    5. Sauna bath
    6. Hot water bath
    7. By giving beverages

Importance Of Warming Up

Warming up increases the heart rate, circulation to our muscles and prepares us mentally for workout.

  1. Increases Body Temperature: Warming up increases the temperature by one/two degree which is beneficial to sports person for avoid any type injuries.
  2. Avoid Injuries: These exercises tone up the muscles before the competition so that the chances of injury are reduced. Muscle tearing and cramps are common which is occurred due ti lack of warming up exercises.
  3. Reduces Anxiety & Tension: It is important to be physically fit but mentally as well as because a good decision may lead to win at the time of competition.
  4. Flexibility: Through the warming up, we can exert the force more to maximum level because it increases the flexibility.
  5. Increases the metabolic rate: It increases the metabolic rate which ultimately enhances the energy level. If the metabolic rate is higher, there will be higher production of energy.
  6. Increases the Strength: Strength is important component of physical fitness and the requirement of physical fitness is vital in the performance of sports person.

Limbering Down

It relaxes the muscles after doing vigorous actions and it is a short exercises which is undertaken after the competition.

Skill, Technique & Style


A skill is the ability of whole movement which comes from training. Skills are of various kinds-shooting in basketball, service in badminton, volleyball and overhead throw in football.

Skills can be divided into following categories:
Cognitive Skills: It is the ability of an individuals to perform the various mental activities which are associated with learning & problem solving. It comprises through processes such as calculations or cricket calculating the run rate.

  1. Attention Skills: It is the ability to remain focused and on task for longer duration.
  2. Memory: This is the ability of athlete to memories and recall information.
  3. Logical Reasoning: The ability of an athlete to think logically and learn those skills.
  4. Auditory processing: The ability to listen carefully often leads to better learning of skills.
  5. Visual processing: If an athlete is having ability to perceiving and analyzing while learning.
  6. Perceptual Skills: It means relating to the way people interpret & understand what they see or notice.
  7. Motor Skills: It is the ability of the body to perform the muscular activities in better coordination.


A technique is a method of doing some task scientifically e.g. taking a block start in a 100 m race is a technique and in a high jump as scissors, straddle & Fosbury flop is a technique of movements.

  1. Scissors technique: In which the bar is approached diagonally and the jumper throw both legs over the bar in a scissoring motion.
  2. Straddle technique: The jumpers take off but using the stronger leg to take of before thrusting the other leg up to push the body sideways over the bar.
  3. Fosbury technique: In 1986 Dick Fosbury Flop introduced this by throwing over the bar head shoulders first and landing on his back.


The techniques are learn but every individual executes those techniques in their own way and they are characterized as style. For example, in cricket there is lot of bowling and batting techniques but players exhibit their own styles and become popular in the world like M.S Dhoni’s helicopter style. Similar in bowling Lasith Malinga has his own style.

Concept Of Doping: Training And Doping In Sports

Doping is the method and substance which is used for enhancing the performance of an athlete.

Classification Of Doping

  1. Blood Doping: It is the misuse of certain techniques to increase one’s red blood cells count which allows the body to transport more oxygen to muscles and therefore increase stamina & performance.
    Procedure: Usually two units of athlete’s blood is taken some weeks prior to competition. Then the blood is frozen until one or two days before the competition and after that it is injected into the athlete.
  2. Gene Doping: It is the manipulation of cells or genes to enhances the sports performance. Modifying genes enable faster reaction and increase physical strength. Gene therapy will speed up the repair of the injuries of muscles, tendons and ligaments etc.

Prohibited Substances

  1. Anabolic Agents (Steroids): They are man-made substances related to male harmones which increases the strength and size of the muscles to enhance the performance of players. After taking this strength and size of the muscles to enhance the performance of players. After taking this steroids the player without feeling any fatigue can take training for hours. It is taken orally or by injection in muscles.
  2. Stimulants: Stimulants are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system by increasing heart rates, blood pressure and body temperature. After taking this stimulants there will be more alertness and physical activity.
  3. Cannabinoids: Cannabinoids are derived from cannabis plant. They develop a feeling of relaxation. Athletes use them to have speedy recovery after exercise.
  4. Narcotics: It is used to reduce the pain from major injury. They could also be used to help an athlete train harder and for a longer period of time.
  5. Beta 2-Agonists: It is commonly used to treat asthma as they relax the muscles that surround the airway and opening up the air passages. Athletes use to increase their muscle size & reduce body fat.
  6. Diuretics: It is a substance which increases the production of urine in the kidneys, promoting the removal of salt & fluid from the body because it makes hard for the hearts to work properly.

Side Effects Of Prohibited Substances

  1. Anabolic Steroid: They have arrange of side effects such ass damage to the cardiovascular system & liver, mental health problem (Depression & aggression), growth of hair on face of both men & women.
  2. Beta 2-Agonists: if they used for log term, they cause excessive sweating, rapid heart beat, headaches and risk of cardiac arrest.
  3. Diuretics: It deprive the body of large amounts of liquids & minerals that lead to mineral imbalance, muscle weakness, low blood pressure, muscle cramps and kidney damage.
  4. Stimulants: Stimulants put pressure on the cardiovascular system. They increase anxiety, hypertension and overheating of the body.
  5. Cannabinoids: It reduces the concentration, coordination and lung capacity which is bad for endurance events.
  6. Narcotics: Excessive use of narcotics may cause sedation, loss of balance and coordination. There may be nausea. vomiting, constipation, fainting and coma.

Dealing With Alcohol And Substance Abuse

Harmful Effects of Alcohol

  1. Muscle Development: Every spot needs strength training to build strong muscles. Drinking alcohol can reduce the ability of the body produce ATP, which is the source of energy for the muscles.
  2. Aerobic Endurance: Aerobic activity needs more oxygen to energize the large muscle groups but alcohol can interfere with these physical reactions. It slows the respiratory function, affects body temperature regulation and increases risk for dehydration.
  3. Cognitive & Motor Functions: To learn strategies techniques one has to respond quickly physically and mentally. Alcohol can effect how your brain slows down cognitive and motor actions.
  4. Long Term effects of Alcohol: It can lead to serious problems as it causes muscle weakness, reduces cardiovascular fitness and the ability to absorb nutrients like zinc, folic acid and vitamin B12

Harmful Effects Of Alcohol & Substance Use

  1. Alcohol & Cocaine: This combination fastens the action of cocaine to stimulate and increases blood pressure, heart rate and alertness. The main risk factors of combination is heart attack and overdose can even lead to death.
  2. Alcohol & Heroin: This combination acts as depressants and more quickly. The risk of using this is life-threatening. Mainly breathing and heart rate slows down.
  3. Alcohol & Ecstasy: It used as stimulant but it can cause severe adverse reactions. This can lead to Diarrhea, excessive sweating, heat stroke, nausea and vomiting.
  4. Alcohol & Marijuana: it also used as as depressants but the overdose can cause immense dizziness, nausea, vomiting and high anxiety.
  5. Alcohol & Painkillers: This combination can cause many problems like liver disease and later it can be fatal.
  6. Alcohol & Sleeping Pills: This can lead to life threatening and it can increase its sedative effects. It can produce dizziness, confusion and faintness.

Training And Doping In Sports: Questions Carrying 03 Marks

  1. Explain the concept of sports training.
  2. Explain Psychological warming up.
  3. How Physiological warming up is done?
  4. What are cognitive skills?
  5. What do you mean by style?
  6. What do you mean by doping?
  7. Write any three harmful effects of alcohol.

Training And Doping In Sports: Questions Carrying 05 Marks

  1. Elaborate the meaning and concept of sports training.
  2. Explain the various principles of sports training.
  3. What do you mean by warming up and limbering?
  4. Explain the concept of skill and technique.
  5. Write a note on prohibited substances and their side effects.
  6. What are the side effects of alcohol and substance use?

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