Thursday , May 28 2020
Urban Livelihoods

NCERT 6th class (CBSE) Social Science: Urban Livelihoods

Question: Mention two features of permanent jobs.


  1. Men having permanent jobs get a regular salary with perks and other benefits eveiy month.
  2. They can expect their job to continue for a long period of time.

Question: In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.

Answer: In a permanent and regular job an employee gets a regular salary every month. Besides, a regular salary he gets other benefits such as savings for old age, holidays, medical facilities for his family, etc. Thus, his job is secured. But casual workers avail no job security. If workers complain about their pay or working conditions, they are asked to leave. They are also expected to work very long hours. They don’t get other benefits like permanent employees.

Question: What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?

Answer: Sudha is a permanent worker with a company. She gets several benefits along with her salary:

  1. Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a fund with the government. She will earn interests on these savings. When she retires from this job she will get this money in the form of pension.
  2. Sudha gets off on Sundays and national holidays: She also gets some days as annual leave.
  3. Medical facilities for her family: The company pays Sudha medical expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members. She gets medical leave if she falls ill and her salary is not cut if she takes this leave.

Question: How do hawkers manage their work?

Answer: Hawkers work on their own. They organise their own work. They know how much to purchase, as well as where and how to set up their shops. Their shops are usually temporary structures. Sometimes just some boards or papers spread over discarded boxes or may be canvas sheet hung up on a few poles. They may also use their own carts or simply a plastic sheet spread on the pavement. They can be asked to dismantle their shops at any time by the police.

Question: Mention some drawbacks of casual jobs.


  1. In casual jobs, workers are not expected to complain about their pay or working
    conditions. If they dare to do this, they are instantly asked to leave.
  2. Casual jobs do not provide security protection if there is ill-treatment.
  3. Casual workers are expected to do work for long hours.
  4. Even if they don’t complain, they can be asked to leave when workload is less.

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