Question: Define germination.
Answer: The process by which a seed forms into a new plant is called germination.
Question: Name any three things that a seed requires to germinate.
Answer: The three things that a seed requires to germinate are –
Question: Why do plants scatter their seeds?
Answer: Plants scatter their seeds in order to insure that they don’t grow to close to each other.
Question: Name any three parts of the plant other than the seed from which the a new plant can grow?
Answer: The three plants other than the seed from which a new plant can grow are –
Question: What is step farming?
Answer: In hilly areas people grow crops by cutting steps into the mountains known as step farming.
Question: Describe the process of germination.
Answer: The process by which a seed grows into a new plant is called germination.
- When the seed get all the necessary things like air, water, warmth, space and nutrients from the soil the process of germination starts.
- During the early stages the seeds will get food from the cotyledons.
- The seed coat will break and a new plant will emerge out of the seed.
- When the plant will develop a root system it will absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
- The shoot system of the plant will develop and now the leaves will start preparing food for the plant therefore the cotyledons will shrink and disappear.
Question: Define dispersal. Describe the different ways of seed dispersal.
Answer: The process by which seed are scattered away from the mother plant is called dispersal. The different ways by which the seeds can by dispersed are –
- By wind – The seeds that are light in weight have wing like structure or hair like structure can be easily carried away by the wind from one place to another. For e.g. – cotton seed.
- By water – Seeds that have a fibrous covering that can bloat on water can be dispersed by this method. For e.g. coconut and lotus.
- By animals – seeds that have hooks or spines can stick on the body of the animals and so can be carried away from one place to another by the animals. For e.g. – cocklebur.
- By explosion – Fruits of some of the plants burst open when they are ripe and scatter the seed in all directions. For e.g. – poppy, pea and beans.
Question: Explain, with examples, the different parts of a plant from which new plants can grow.
Answer: The different parts of the plants from which a new plant can grow are the following –
- From roots – Some plants store food in their roots, so the new plants can grow from the roots of these plants. For e.g. – carrot, radish, beetroot, turnip, dahlia.
- From stem – Some plants like potato have buds called eyes on their surface. A bud can grow into a new plant. Some plants rose, hibiscus and mony plant can grow a new plant with their stem cuttings.
- From leaves – Some leaves like bryophyllum have buds on their margins when these leaves fall down on a moist soil the bud can grow into a new plant.
Question: Write differences between rabi and kharif crops with examples.
Question: What is the importance of cotyledons for a plant?
Answer: Cotyledons provide food for the baby plant in the early stages of germination.
Question: Define agriculture. Write different stages of agriculture.
Answer: The practice of growing plants on a large scale for food or other purposes is called agriculture. The different stages are –
- The field is ploughed.
- Manure is added to the soil.
- Seeds are sown.
- The crops are irrigated (watered).
- The crops are sprayed with chemicals called pesticides to protect them from pests.
- The crops are harvested.
Question: What is negetative reproduction?
Answer: The process in which new plants are grown from the parts of the plant other than seed is called negetative reproduction.