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Manufacturing Industries: 10th Social Science

Question: Why is iron & steel industry called a heavy and basic industry? Give two reasons for each?

Answer: Heavy Industry: The raw materials iron ore, limestone etc are heavy. The finished product are also heavy.

Basic Industry: All industries depend on it for machines.

Question: Why have most of the iron and steel plants been set up in the Public Sector? Explain four reasons?

Answer: Iron and steel plants requires huge capital investments and the yield or profit take a long time. No large number of labours are required.

Question: Where and why most of the cotton industries are located in India?

Answer: Location of Cotton Textile Industry: This industry was earlier concentrated in the cotton belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Availability of raw materials, port facilities, transport, labour, moist climate, etc. were in favour of these locations. The industry provides a source of livelihood to farmers, cotton boll puckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. This industry supports many other industries; like chemical and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.

Spinning still continues to be centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. However, weaving is highly decentralized and there are many weaving centers in the country.

Question: Why are most of the jute mills of India located in West Bengal?

Answer:

  1. About 90% of India’s jute is produced in the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta. Hence there is abundant and regular supply of jute.
  2. Coal is obtained from Raniganj coalfields, which is less the 200 km away.
  3. Hooghly river provides fresh water in abundance it the industry for washing jute and jute goods.
  4. Cheap skilled and unskilled labour is available from the densely populated states of W.Bengal, Bihar, and U.P.
  5. Cheap water transportation with a network of roads and railways help in collection of raw materials and distribution of finished goods.
  6. Cheap and adequate hydel power is available from the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC).
  7. Kolkata provides good port facilities for the import of machinery and export of finished jute products.
  8. There is no dearth of finances required to be invested.

Question: Describe briefly the distribution of railway equipment’s industries in India.

Answer: The railway equipment’s industries are at different places.
The steam engines, diesel engines and electric engines are manufactured at Chittaranjan in the West Bengal, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh and Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. Rails and sleeper bars are manufactured at different steel plants. Coaches are manufactured at Parambur, Bangalore, Kapurthala and Kolkata.

Question: Why is the iron and steel industry located in Peninsular India only?

Answer: Iron-ore, coking coal and limestone are the basic raw material for the iron and steel industry. Iron and steel industry is located near the iron and coal deposits particularly at Jamshedpur in Bihar or in the Chhotanagpur area, bordering West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, because of the following reasons:

  1. All the raw materials required for iron and steel industry like iron-ore, coking coal and the limestone are available in this area.
  2. Because all these things are heavy and bulky ,the location of this industry is therefore, governed by the close proximity to raw materials. Bulky and heavy raw materials exert much pressure to locate the industry nearby i.e., in the Chhotanagpur area. Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Durgapur etc, are all situated in this area.
  3. Means of transport, like railways and roads, also pass through this area on stupendous scale, so manufactured goods can easily be distributed within the country and also exported to other countries.
  4. Fourthly, if the iron and steel industries are near the iron and coal mines, the labour problem is also solved to a great extent. The labour and other facilities are easily available there.

Question: Describe briefly the distribution of silk textile industry in India.

Answer: Distribution of Silk Textile Industry in India

  1. Mulberry, tasar, chanderi and munga silk are major silk varieties that are produced in India.
  2. There are 90 big and small silk mills, producing silk goods in the country.
  3. More than 90% of the country’s silk production comes from Karnataka, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir.
  4. Main silk producing centres are.
    (i) Bungler, Kolar, Mysore and Belgaum in Karnataka.
    (ii) Murshabad and Bankure in West Bengal.
    (iii) Anantnag, Baramula and Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir.

Question: Describe the distribution of ship-building industry in India.

Answer: Ship building Industry in India

  1. Ship building is a large industry, which needs huge investment of capital.
  2. At present, Visakhapatnam, Kolkata, Kochi, Mumbai and Mormugao are major ship building centers of the country. All these centers are in public sector.
  3. There are also private sector shipyards. They look after the local needs of the people.
  4. Vishakapattanam produces the ship of maximum size of 1,00,000 DWT (Dead weight Tonnage) and Kochi produces the ship of maximum size of 50,000 DWT.
  5. Seventeen dry docks are also engaged in the repairs of ships in the country.

Question: How does industrial pollution degrade environment?

Answer: Industries have increased pollution and degraded environment. Industries create four types of pollution mainly air, water, land and noise. The smoke emitted by the industry pollutes the air and water very badly. Air pollution is caused by the presence of a higher proportion of undesirable gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur oxide.

Source of water pollution are numerous. Most important are the industrial effluent that discharge into rivers. They are both organic and inorganic. They pollute the water. Unwanted loud noise is also pollution. It arises from industries and other means of transport. Noise causes impairment of hearing.

Question: three human inputs that control location of industries.

Answer: Human inputs that control location of industries is:
1. Labour
2. Market and
3. Transport facilities

Question: Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?

Answer: Limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum are the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement.

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