Friday , August 19 2022
Farming

NCERT 8th Class (CBSE) Social Science: Agriculture

Question: Name the different types of farming. Explain any two types of farming in detail.

Answer:

  1. Shifting Cultivation: Shifting cultivation is mainly practiced in the forested areas of the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of south-east Asia and parts of north-east India. The land is cleared by cutting and burning bushes and trees. The farming methods are primitive. Crops like yam, cassava, maize and potatoes are mostly grown. After about two to three years, the soil loses its fertility and becomes unproductive. Then the farmer shifts to another part of the forest This method is also called slash and burn agriculture.
  2. Nomadic Herding: Nomads are tribes who move from place to place in search of means of subsistence. People  who move in search of pastures for their domesticated animals are known as nomadic herders. Their seasonal movement with livestock, uphill during summer and downhill during winter in search of pastures is called transhumance. Nomadic herding is mainly practiced in the arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara in Africa, central Asia and in some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.(i) Sedentary Farming
    (ii) Intensive Farming
    (iii) Commercial Farming
    (iv) Extensive Farming
    (v) Mixed Farming

Question: Write a Short note on nomadic herding.

Answer: Nomads are tribes who move from place to place in search of means of subsistence. People  who move in search of pastures for their domesticated animals are known as nomadic herders. Their seasonal movement with livestock, uphill during summer and downhill during winter in search of pastures is called transhumance. Nomadic herding is mainly practiced in the arid and semi-arid regions of Sahara in Africa, central Asia and in some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. The animals reared are sheep, goats, camels and yaks. These animals provide food, such as milk and meat. They also provide wool and hides which are used to make clothes and shelter.

Question: Distinguish between intensive and extensive farming.

Answer: Intensive:

  1. Land is cultivated intensively season after year by agriculture methods and manpower.
  2. Land holdings are smaller.
  3. It is carried on in densely populated areas and the population pressure is high.
  4. Yield per person is less but per hectare is more, Eg:- Japan, India and UK.

Extensive:

  1. Farming practice involving highly greater use of machinery. It is mechanized by bringing more and more land under cultivation.
  2. Farms are large.
  3. It is practiced in modernly populated  areas. The population pressure is less.
  4. Yield per person is more but hectare is less Eg: USA, Canada, Australia.

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