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Reaching the Age of Adolescence

NCERT 9th Class (CBSE) Social Science: Population

Question: Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Answer: Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates.

Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.

Question: How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

Answer: Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.

Question: “The people are important to develop the economy and society”. Explain.
What is the importance of studying population?


  1. The people make and use resources and are themselves resources with varying quality.
  2. It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning.
  3. “Resources”, “calamities” and “disasters” are all meaningful only in relation to human beings. Their numbers,
    distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment.
  4. Human beings are producers and consumers of earth’s resources.
    Therefore, it is important to know how many people are there in a country, where do they five, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics.

Question: “Assam and most of the Peninsular states have moderate population densities”. Give three reasons.


  1. The region has hilly,dissected and rocky terrain.
  2. The region receives moderate to low rainfall.
  3. The region has shallow and less fertile soil.

Question: Mention the process of change of population.


  1. Birthrate
  2. Death rate
  3. Migration

Question: What are the major factors responsible for internal migration?

Answer: In India, most migrations have been from the rural to the urban areas because of the “push” factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the “pull” of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities are better living conditions.

Question: What is occupational structure? Explain.

Answer: Occupational structure refers to the distribution of work force among different occupations. Different occupations can be classified into three groups:

  1. Primary Producers or Occupations: Those who grow natural products like crops, etc. and are mainly engaged in agriculture and allied activities.
  2. Secondary Occupations: Those who are producing products with the help of machines like textiles, construction, etc.
  3. Tertiary Occupations: Those who provide services like education, health services, banking, insurance, etc.
    About 64 per cent population of India is still engaged in primary sector.

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