Question: What is the difference between a wildlife sanctuary and a biosphere reserve?
Answer: Wildlife sanctuaries are protected forests to preserve wildlife providing protection and suitable living conditions for wild animals whereas a biosphere reserve is a large protected area set aside for conservation of wildlife, plant and animal resources, and the traditional life of the tribals living in the area. Biosphere reserve is a broader term than wildlife sanctuaries. A biosphere reserve may have national parks and wildlife sanctuaries within it.
Question: Discuss five methods of forest conservation.
Answer: Five means of forest conservation are:
- Planned harvesting, i.e. cutting only some of the trees in an area. The uncut trees prevent soil erosion and produce seeds so that new trees can grow.
- Afforestation (or Reforestation), which means renewing a forest by planting seedlings or small trees of the same species as found in the forest.
- Protection from forest fires by spraying fire extinguishing solutions from aircrafts.
- Protection from insects and pests by using insecticides and fungicides and removing infected trees.
- Protection from overgrazing to protect growing plants by providing pastures which can be used by rotation.
Question: What are the consequences of deforestation?
Answer: Some of the consequences of deforestation are listed below:
- It causes an increase in soil erosion. As the top soil gets eroded, the lower hard and rocky soil with less humus gets exposed. This soil is less fertile. Over time, continued soil erosion can convert the land into a desert. This is called desertification.
- It causes an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, resulting in global warming. The consequent increase in atmospheric temperature can effect the water cycle and may result in lower rainfall. This can cause droughts.
- It causes reduction in groundwater due to decreased water absorption capacity of the soil. The reduction in absorption capacity of water into soil can result in floods.
- It causes shortage of products we get from forests.
Question: Discuss the steps necessary for wildlife conservation?
Answer: The steps necessary for wildlife conservation are:
- Habitat preservation: Preserving the habitat of wildlife helps in their conservation. Preventing deforestation is an important method of habitat preservation. Afforestation provides shelter and food for the wildlife.
- Hunting regulations: Government regulations related to hunting and their effective implementation is very important for wildlife conservation. The hunting of endangered species is completely banned.
- Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks: To effectively implement the methods of conserving forests and wildlife, the government has set aside permanent protected areas for conservation of biodiversity in that area. These are known as biosphere reserves.
- National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries are protected forests to preserve wildlife. They provide protection and suitable living conditions for wild animals. The animals can breed and multiply in these areas.
Question: To conserve forests we should ban cutting of trees completely. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Answer: Banning the cutting down of trees completely is not practical as we need wood for several purposes. Planned harvesting of trees is the best method to conserve forest so that we get our requirements without reducing the forest cover. This is a practical method.