Question: Write a short note on the regional kingdoms of the Deccan. The Deccan.
Answer: Region between the river Narmada and Krishna is known as the Deccan.
- The Rashrakutas rose to power in the 8th century under Dantidurga.
- Dantidurga and his successor Krishna I consolidated the rule in the region of present day Maharashtra.
- Malkhed, near modern Sholapur in Maharashtra, was the capital city.
- Continuous wars weakened the Rashtrakutas considerably. They were finally overthrown in the 10th Century.
- They were patrons of art, architecture and literature. The famous Kailasa Temple at Ellora, Rock-cut caves at Elephanta were carved during the reign of Rashtrakutas.
Yadav of Devagiri:
- Bhillama founded the kingdom in 12th century.
- The Yadavs consolidated themselves in the region between Godavari and Narmada rivers.
- Flourishing trade made the kingdom rich and prosperous.
- In fourteenth century, the Khalji rulers annexed their territories.
Chalukyas of kalyani:
- The Chalukyas of Kalyani were also known as later Chalukyas or the western Chalukyas.
- The greatest ruler was Vikramanka.
- He and his successors built many temples Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal.
Kabatiyas of warangal (ruled in 12th and 13th century):
- The Kabatiyas ruled in the 12th and 13th centuries.
- Their kingdom lay between Godavari and Krishna rivers.
- Kabatiyas rulers were followers of Shaivism, though Jainism and Vaishnavism also flourished.
- The rulers patronized Sanskrit and Telugu.
- The kingdom was conquered by Sultan of Delhi in the early 14th century.
Hoysalas of Dvarasmudra:
- The Hoysalas ruled the region covered by present day Karnataka.
- The most powerful king Vishnuvardhan.
- The kingdom was later absorbed into Delhi Sultanate.
Question: Who were known as Samantas?
Answer: Big landlords or warrior chiefs who were subordinates to a king are called samantas.
Question: Who were Rashtrakutas?
Answer: They were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. Later they became independent started their own dynasty.
Question: Do you think being born as a Kshatriya was important in order to become a ruler during this period? Give examples.
Answer: No. It was not important to be a Kshatriya in order to become a ruler in that period. For example:
- Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha to establish his kingdom.
- Kadamba Mayurasharman and the Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra were Brahmanas who gave up their traditional professions and took to arms, successfully establishing kingdoms in Karnataka and Rajasthan respectively.
Question: Name the famous caves having a wall carving of Vishnu as Narasimha, the man-lion done during Rashtrakutas period.
Answer: Ellora caves
Question: What is vetti and kadamai?
Answer: These terms are taxes during Chola period. Vetti was the most common tax which means forced labour. Kadamai refers to land revenue.