[Page 2]: NCERT 7th Class CBSE Geography
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife – Question: Discuss various types of forests.
Answer: Types of forests:
- Tropical evergreen forests
- Tropical deciduous forests
- Temperate evergreen forests
- Temperate deciduous forests
- Mediterranean vegetation
- Coniferous forests
1. Tropical evergreen forests: These forest are very dense and found in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics. These regions receive heavy rain throughout the year. The trees of these forests do not shed their leaves altogether and therefore they remain green all the time. Hardwood trees like rosewood, ebony and mahogany are found here.
2. Tropical deciduous forests: These forest are found in the regions which experience seasonal changes. Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water. The hardwood trees like sal, teak, neem and shisham are found here. Animals like tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are common in these forests.
3. Temperate evergreen forests: These forests are commonly found along the eastern margin of the continents. They comprise both hard and softwood trees. For example, oak, pine, eucalyptus etc.
4. Temperate deciduous forests: Trees of these forests shed their leaves in dry ‘season’. Oak, ash, beech, etc. are common trees here. Deer, foxes, wolves, etc. are common animals in these forests.
5. Mediterranean vegetation: It is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. Citrus fruits like oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated in the mediterranean regions.
6. Coniferous forests: They are also called Taiga. They are tall, softwood evergreen trees. Chir, pine, cedar are important variety of trees in these forests. Silver, fox, mink, polar bear are the common animals found here.
Question: Describe different types of grasslands.
Answer: Different types of grasslands are:
- Tropical grasslands
- Temperate grasslands
- Thorny bushes
- Tropical grasslands. This type of vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall. The grass here can grow very tall, about 3 to 4 meters in height. Savannah grasslands of Africa are of this type. Common animals found here are elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards etc.
- Temperate grasslands. This type of vegetation is found in the mid-latitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents. Grass here is usually short and nutritious. Common animals found in this region are wild buffaloes, bison, antelopes etc.
- Thorny bushes. These are found in the dry desert like regions. Tropical deserts are located on the western margins of the continents, which are characterized by searce vegetation.
Vegetation in the polar regions is also limited. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here. It grows during the very short summer. This is called Tundra type of vegetation. Polar animals have thick fur and thick skin which protect them from the cold climate conditions, for example, seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl etc.
Question: Why was Salima excited? Where had she gone during her summer vacation?
- Salima was excited about the summer camp.
- She had gone to Manali in Himachal Pradesh alongwith her class friends.
Question: What surprised her during her journey?
Answer: She was surprised to see the changes in landforms and vegetation. As their bus climbed higher the dense jungles of teak and sal slowly disappeared. Gradually they could see more of coniferous trees with pointed leaves on the hill slopes.
Question: Name the brightest flower on tall trees.
Answer: Rhododendron is the brightest flower on tall trees at high altitudes.
Question: What do we surmise from Salima’s observations?
Answer: From Salima’s observations, we surmise that there is a close relationship between height of land and the types of vegetation.
- With the increase in height climate changes.
- Climate changes natural vegetation.
- The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture.
- It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil.
Question: How is natural vegetation classified?
Three broad categories of natural vegetation:
- Forests: Grow in regions of high temperature and rain.
- Grasslands: Grow in regions of moderate rainfall.
- Thorny shrubs and scrubs: Grow in dry regions.
Question: What experiences did Salima’s father tell her about a variety of natural vegetation in different parts of different continents? What did Salima realize?
- Salima shared her experience of Himalayan trip with her father.
- Her father had visited various places in the world.
- He told Salima about his observation of variety of vegetation in different parts of the different continents.
- He mentioned about coniferous forests in the sub-polar regions.
- Thorny bushes in the deserts.
- Thick tropical hardwood forest in the humid regions and many more.
- Salima realized that Himalayas have almost all variety of vegetation which one can see while moving from equator to the polar region.
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife – Question: Why do type and thickness of natural vegetation vary from place to place?
Answer: The type and thickness of natural vegetation vary from place to place because of the variation in the factors like, height, climate (temperature and moisture), slope and thickness of the soils.
Question: Write down the features of Tropical Evergreen Forests.
Answer: Tropical Evergreen Forests: Tropical evergreen forests are also called tropical rain forests.
They occur in the region near the equator and close to the tropics.
- These regions are hot.
- They receive heavy rainfall during the year.
- With no dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether.
They are called evergreen.
- The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate the forest even in day time.
- Hardwood trees like Rosewood, Ebony, Mahagany are common trees.
Question: Write the features of Tropical Deciduous Forests.
Features of Tropical Deciduous Forests:
- Tropical deciduous forests are monsoonal forests.
- They are found in a large part of India, northern Australia and in Central America.
- These regions experience seasonal changes.
- Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.
- The hardwood trees are found in these forests.
- They are Sal, Teak, Neem, and Shisham.
- Hardwood trees are extremely useful for making furniture, transport and constructional materials.
- Tiger, Lion, Elephants are the common animals of these regions.
Question: Where are Temperate Evergreen forests located?
Answer: Mid latitudinal coastal regions have temperate Evergreen forests. Commonly the eastern margins of the continents like south east USA, south China or south east Brazil have these forests. Both hard and soft wood trees like oak, pine, eucalyptus are found in temperate evergreen forests.
Question: Describe major features of Temperate Deciduous Forest.
Answer: Major Features of Temperate Deciduous Forest:
- Going towards higher latitudes, there are more temperate deciduous forests.
- They are found in the north-eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile.
- They are also found in the coastal regions of Western Europe.
- They shed their leaves in the dry season.
- The common trees of these forests are oak, ash, beech etc.
- Deer, foxes, wolves, are the animals which commonly live in these forests.
- Common birds are pheasants and monals.
Question: Which region is called the “orchards of the world” and why?
Answer: Mediterranean region is known as the orchards of the world because of their fruit cultivation.
Question: Write major features of Mediterranean Vegetation.
Answer: Major Features of Mediterranean Vegetation:
- Most of the east and the north-east margins of the continents are covered with temperate evergreen and deciduous trees.
The west and the south west margins of the continents are different.
- They have Mediterranean vegetation.
- It is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
- This vegetation is also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in California in the U.S.A., South-West Africa.
- These regions are marked for hot dry summers and rainy mild winters.
- Citrus fruits like oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want to. There is not much wildlife here.
Question: Give an account of the main features of Coniferous Forests.
Answer: Major Features of Coniferous Forests
- In the higher latitudes (50°-70°) of Northern Hemisphere coniferous forests are found.
- They are also called as Taiga.
- They are also found in the higher latitudes.
- They are also found in Himalayas in abundance.
- They are tall, softwood, evergreen trees.
- These woods are used in making paper and newsprint.
- Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from softwood.
- Chir, Pine, Cedar are the important variety of trees in these forests.
- Silver fox, Mink, Polar bear are the common animals found in these forests.
Question: Describe main features of Tropical Grasslands.
Answer: Main features of Tropical Grasslands:
- Tropical grasslands grow on either side of the equator and extend up to the tropics.
- Grass grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall.
- They grow very tall, about 3 to 4 metres in height.
- Example: Savannah grasslands of Africa.
- Elephants, Zebras, Giraffes, Deer, Leopards are common wild-life animals in tropical grasslands.
Question: Write major features of Temperate Grasslands.
Answer: Mtgor features of Temperate Grasslands:
- Temperate grasslands are found in the mid latitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents.
- Usually, grass here is short and nutritious.
- Wild buffaloes, bisons, antelopes are common in the temperate grasslands.
Question: Write major features of Thorny Bushes.
Thorny bushes are found in dry desert regions like tropical and sub-tropical regions:
- The vegetation cover is scarce due to less rainfall and extreme temperatures.
- The trees have thorns to reduce transpiration and thick stems, wax coated leaves and long roots.
- The main vegetation is cacti, thorny bushes etc.
- Camel, fox, wolf, goat, sheep are common animals.
Question: Explain major features of Tundra Type of Vegetation.
Major features of Tundra Type of Vegetation:
- Polar regions qre extremely cold.
- Growth of natural vegetation is very limited here.
- Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs grow here during short summer.
- This vegetation grows in Polar areas of Europe, Asia and North America.
- The animals of this region have thick fur and thick skin to protect themselves from cold climate conditions.
- Seal, walruses, reindeer, mink (musk oxen), Arctic owl, polar bear, snow foxes are some of the common animals found in this region.
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife – Question: What was Salima’s observation after seeing the photographs of thick forests?
Answer: Salima’s father showed her the photographs of thick forests. On the question of why the forests are being cleared he explained that local people wanted land for settlement and agriculture.
Salima wondered if all the forests cleared then from where will we get oxygen, timber, fruits etc? What will happen to the habitats of wildlife?
Question: Do you agree with Salima? Hold a discussion with your friends about the depletion of our diversified flora and fauna. Suggest some measures to conserve them.
- Yes, we agree with Salima.
- “The students should perform this activity in their class.”
Measures to conserve forests:
- Complete ban on cutting forests.
- Social and community forestry.
- Farm Forestry.
- Plantation of trees in a big way.
- Planting of 10 plants if one cuts, one tree.
- Heavy punishment to poachers and smugglers.
Question: Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
- Tropical evergreen forests of Brazil are called …………….. of the earth.
- Mediterranean regions are known as the ………….. for their fruit cultivation.
- Thick barks and wax coated leaves reduce …………………….
- …………………..is the desert of India.
- Tundra type of vegetation is found in polar regions of Europe and ………………
- orchards of the world
- North America
Natural Vegetation and Wildlife – Question: State whether the given statements are true or false.
- There is no relation between altitude and vegetation.
- We find thorny bushes in deserts.
- Grasslands are grown in the regions of moderate rainfall.
- Silver fox and polar bear are common animals of coniferous region.
- The other name for coniferous forest is Tundra.