Question: Give the details of all the major continents.
Answer: There are seven major continents – Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.
- Asia: is the largest continent. It covers about one third of the total land area of the earth. It lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent. Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west. The combined land mass of Europe and Asia is called the Eurasia (Europe + Asia).
- Europe: This continent lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic circle passes through it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides.
- Africa: It is the second largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 0° latitude runs almost through the middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass. It is bound on all sides by oceans and seas. The world’s largest hot desert, i.e. the Sahara Desert lies in this continent. The world’s longest river the Nile flows through it.
- North America: It is the third largest continent of the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. This continent lies completely in the Northern and Western Hemisphere.
- South America: It lies mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. The Andes, world’s longest mountain range, runs through its length from north to south. The world’s largest river, the Amazon flows through this continent.
- Astralia: It is the smallest continent. It lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.
- Antarctica: It lies completely in the Southern Hemisphere. It is a large continent. The South Pole lies almost at the centre of this continent It is permanently covered with thick ice sheets because it is located in the South Polar region. Permanent human settlement is not found here.
The major continents:
Question:Write about the major oceans of the world.
Answer: There are four major oceans in the world—the Pacific Ocean the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
- The Pacific Ocean: It is the largest ocean and is spread over one-third of the earth. Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the earth, lies under the Pacific Ocean. This ocean is circular in shape. Asia, Australia, North and South Americas surround it.
- The Atlantic Ocean: It is the second largest ocean in the world. It is ‘S’ shaped. It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the Western side and Europe and Africa on the eastern side. The coastline of this ocean is highly indented. It is the ideal location for natural harbours and ports. Commercially, it is the busiest ocean.
- The Indian Ocean: It is the only ocean named after country, that is, India. The shape of the ocean is triangular. It is bound by Asia in the north, by Africa in the west and by Australia in the east.
- The Arctic Ocean: It is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole. It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as Berring Strait. See the map given in the previous question