Question: (1). When and where was the London underground railway started?
(2). How did the underground railway help in solving the housing problem?
- The firs section of the underground railway in the world opened on 10th January. 1863 between Padding-ton and Harrington street in London.
- (i). The London underground railway partially solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city.
(ii). Large number of people started living outside central London.
Question: Who designed the garden city of New Earswick? Mention its two features.
Answer: The garden city of New Earswick was designed by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker.
- There were common garden spaces, beautiful view’s, and great attention was paid to every detail.
- These houses could be afforded by only well-off workers.
Question: Why some people were against the London Underground Railway?
- Many fell that the “iron monsters added to the mess and unhealthiness of the city.
- To make approximately two miles of railway, about 900 houses had to be destroyed.
- The London Tube Railway led to a massive displacement of the London poor.
Question: What was the impact of city life on women? Explain.
- Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain, faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children on low wages.
- Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives, particularly among the lower social classes. However, many social reformers felt that the family, as an institution had broken down, and needed to be saved or reconstructed by pushing these women back into the home.
- The city life was dominated by men and women who were forced to withdraw into their homes.
- Most of the conservatives were against the presence of women in the public places.
Question: What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the 19th and 20th centuries? Explain the factors which led to this change.
Explain giving three reasons, how women gradually lost their industrial jobs due to technological development, during the early nineteenth century in Britain.
How the condition of women workers changed from 19th and 20th centuries in London?
- Employment in Factories: In the 18th and the 19th centuries, a large number of women were employed in the factories because during that period, most of the production activities were carried with the help of the family.
- Technological Developments and loss of jobs: But with the technological advancement, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and were forced to do household work. They also tried to increase the family income by activities like tailoring, washing or matchbox making.
- Employment during War: However, in the 20th century, women again started getting employed in wartime industries and offices because most of the male citizens were fighting at the front.
Question: Mention the problems which the authorities faced while trying to provide pollution free environment to the people living in the cities.
- Factory owners and steam engine owners did not want to spend on technologies that would improve their machines.
- By the 1840s. a few towns such as Derby. Leeds and Manchester had laws to control smoke in the city. But smoke was not easy to monitor or measure, and owners go! away with small adjustments to their machinery’ that did nothing to stop the smoke.
- Moreover, the Smoke Abatement Acts of 1547 and 1853. as they were called, did nor always work to clear the air.
Question: What is meant by the term individualism? Explain.
- Individualism is a theory which promotes the liberty, rights or independent action of the individual, rather than of the community.
- This is a freedom from the collective values that were a feature of small rural communities.
- Ties between members of household loosened, and among the working class the institution of marriage tended to break down.
Question: Mention any three features of the London Season.
- The London Season evolved in the 17th and I8th centuries.
- It was basically for wealthy Britishers.
- Several cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre, and classical music performances were organised for an elite group of 300 – 400 families