Thursday , July 7 2022

Water resources: 10th CBSE Geography

Question: Explain the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water scarcity.
Water is available in abundance in India even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Explain with four examples.


  1. Quantitative aspect: This aspect is related to the availability of water resources. The availability of water resources varies over space and time mainly due to variations in seasonal and annual precipitation. However, water scarcity in most cases is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
  2. Qualitative aspect: Now, let us consider another situation where water is sufficiently available to meet the needs of the people, but, the area still suffers from water scarcity. This scarcity may be due to bad quality of water. Lately, there has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use.

Question: Why is there an urgent need to conserve and manage our water resources? Mention three reasons.
Why is it necessary to conserve water resources in India? Explain.
Why is it essential to conserve, and manage our water resources? Explain any three reasons.
Why we should conserve our water resources? Explain any three reasons.


  1. Precondition for life: Water is necessary for life on earth. It is believed that life originated in water before it invaded land. Water is in fact a precondition of life.
  2.  Water essential for crops: Cultivation of crops depends on the availability of water. Water dissolves minerals and other nutrients in the ground. The roots of the plants draw this nutritious water for the soil. India is an agricultural country so availability of water is a must.
  3. Water and industries: Industries need water as coolant, solvent, raw material, etc.
  4. Water for daily life: Water is also used for drinking and domestic consumption. The growing urbanisation with its modern lifestyle has been demanding greater share of water day by day.
  5. Water an important component of ecosystem: Conservation of water is also important to prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems.
  6. Water scarcity: It is essential to conserve and manage water because its overuse and misuse has lead to water scarcity.

Question: Examine the importance of the river valley projects in the development of Hyde power and irrational facilities in India.
Give any four objectives of the multipurpose river valley projects.


  1. Generation of Power (electricity): These multipurpose projects are the main source of power generation. According to the Economic Survey, 2013, these produce more than 39,788.40 MW power. They provide us neat, pollution free and cheapest energy which is the backbone of industry and agriculture.
  2. Flood Control: These projects control the floods because water can be stored in them. These projects have converted many ‘rivers of sorrows’ into ‘rivers of boon’. For example, the river Kosi.
  3. Soil Conservation: They help to conserve the soil because they slow down the speed of water.
  4. Irrigation: These projects are the main source of irrigation for our country. These irrigate the fields during the dry seasons. Many perennial canals have been dug and they irrigate dry areas.

Question: “In recent years, the multipurpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny.” Give reasons.
Mention any four disadvantages of multi purpose projects.
Or .
How may the multipurpose river valley projects become harmful for the country ? Explain with four examples.
Why are multipurpose projects facing resistance ? Explain with three reasons.


  1. Adverse effect on the fertility of the soil: Due to the construction of dams, there are no annual floods in the river. And
    because of this, the soil of the downstream region does not get nutrient rich “silt”. This decreases the fertility of the soil.
  2. Adverse impact on aquatic life: Due to the construction of dams on the rivers, the fish in the downstream area do not get sufficient nutrient material. Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of water causing poor sediment flow downward, and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers aquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate for spawning i.e., to produce eggs.
  3. Displacement of local communities: The building of large dams results in displacement of local communities. The local people often have to give up their land and livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater food of the nation.
  4. Change in the cropping pattern: The multipurpose projects are responsible for providing assured means of irrigation to farmers. Due to this, most of the farmers have changed the cropping pattern shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has led to salinisation of soil leading to ecological imbalance.

Question: “Need of the hour is to conserve and manage our water resources.” Mention any four reasons. Suggest any two ways to conserve water.


  1. To safeguard ourselves from health hazards.
  2. To ensure food security.
  3. To prevent degradation of our natural ecosystem.
  4. To save the future generations from water crisis.

(i) Turn off the tap while brushing.
(ii) We should spread awareness regarding water conservation.
(iii) Rainwater harvesting.

Question: How is industrialisation responsible for water scarcity? Explain. Suggest any two ways to check water pollution.


  1. The ever increasing number of industries has made matter worse by exerting pressure on the existing freshwater resources.
  2. Industries need power which is produced from water. The power is produced by the multipurpose projects.
  3. Chemicals and gases released by industries also pollutes the water.

Suggestions :
(i) Minimising use of soaps and detergents.
(ii) Minimising use of fertilisers.

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