Monday , May 23 2022
Coming of the British 

The making of a global world: 10th SST

Question: “Before the arrival of outsiders most of the Africans had a little reason to work for a wage”. Give reasons.

Answer:

  1. Before the arrival of outsiders, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. Agriculture and animal rearing was the main occupation of the people. Most of the villages and families were self-sufficient.
  2.  In Africa, there were few consumer goods that wages could buy.

Question: Why were European attracted to Africa in die late 19th century? Give one reason.

Answer: Due to its vast resources of land and minerals.

Question: How rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880’s?

Answer: It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.

Question: Who was indentured laborer?

Answer: A bounded laborer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home.

Question: Name any four regions of India from where indentured workers came.

Answer: (i) Uttar Pradesh,  (ii) Tamil Nadu, (iii) Bihar, (iv) Central India

Question: What were the main destinations of Indian indentured migrants?

Answer: Caribbean islands, Mauritius and Fiji

Question: What is the meaning of “cultural fusion”? Give two examples.

Answer: Cultural fusion is a process under which two or more than two cultures intermingle and produce a new culture.

  1. Hosay
  2. Chutney

Question: How were the indentured workers exploited by the recruiting agents?

Answer: They provided them false information about final destination, modes of travel, the nature of work and living and working conditions. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing wages.

Question: What was Hosay? What was its importance?

Answer: In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transferred into a riotous carnival called “Hosay”. It was one of the way to preserve the culture by indentured laborers.

Question: When and why was indentured labour migration abolished?

Answer: It was abolished in 1921 as it was opposed by Indian leaders.

Question: Name any two Indian groups of bankers who financed export agriculture in Central and South-east Asia.

Answer:

  1. Shikaripuri shroffs
  2. Nattukottai Chettiars

Question: Why did the inflow of fine Indian cotton begin to decline in the 19th century?

Answer: Tariffs were imposed by the British government to protect local industries.

Question: Define “trade surplus”. Why Britain had a trade surplus with India?

Answer: It is a situation under which value of exports is more than imports. Britain had a “trade surplus” because India was exporting food products to Britain which had less market value and it was importing finished goods which had higher market value.

Question: How was the income received from trade surplus with India used by Britain?

Answer: Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt and pensions of British officials in India.

Question: “The First World War was the first modern industrial war”. Justify the answer.

Answer: The first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modem large-scale industry.

Question: The First World War was a war like no other before. Justify.

Answer:

  1. The war included world’s leading industrial nations which now harnessed the vast powers of modem industry.
  2. The war was fought in air, on land and in water.

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