Monday , May 23 2022
Coming of the British 

The making of a global world: 10th SST

Question: “Before the arrival of outsiders most of the Africans had a little reason to work for a wage”. Give reasons.


  1. Before the arrival of outsiders, Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population. Agriculture and animal rearing was the main occupation of the people. Most of the villages and families were self-sufficient.
  2.  In Africa, there were few consumer goods that wages could buy.

Question: Why were European attracted to Africa in die late 19th century? Give one reason.

Answer: Due to its vast resources of land and minerals.

Question: How rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880’s?

Answer: It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.

Question: Who was indentured laborer?

Answer: A bounded laborer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home.

Question: Name any four regions of India from where indentured workers came.

Answer: (i) Uttar Pradesh,  (ii) Tamil Nadu, (iii) Bihar, (iv) Central India

Question: What were the main destinations of Indian indentured migrants?

Answer: Caribbean islands, Mauritius and Fiji

Question: What is the meaning of “cultural fusion”? Give two examples.

Answer: Cultural fusion is a process under which two or more than two cultures intermingle and produce a new culture.

  1. Hosay
  2. Chutney

Question: How were the indentured workers exploited by the recruiting agents?

Answer: They provided them false information about final destination, modes of travel, the nature of work and living and working conditions. Sometimes agents even forcibly abducted less willing wages.

Question: What was Hosay? What was its importance?

Answer: In Trinidad the annual Muharram procession was transferred into a riotous carnival called “Hosay”. It was one of the way to preserve the culture by indentured laborers.

Question: When and why was indentured labour migration abolished?

Answer: It was abolished in 1921 as it was opposed by Indian leaders.

Question: Name any two Indian groups of bankers who financed export agriculture in Central and South-east Asia.


  1. Shikaripuri shroffs
  2. Nattukottai Chettiars

Question: Why did the inflow of fine Indian cotton begin to decline in the 19th century?

Answer: Tariffs were imposed by the British government to protect local industries.

Question: Define “trade surplus”. Why Britain had a trade surplus with India?

Answer: It is a situation under which value of exports is more than imports. Britain had a “trade surplus” because India was exporting food products to Britain which had less market value and it was importing finished goods which had higher market value.

Question: How was the income received from trade surplus with India used by Britain?

Answer: Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt and pensions of British officials in India.

Question: “The First World War was the first modern industrial war”. Justify the answer.

Answer: The first modern industrial war. It saw the use of machine guns, tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons, etc. on a massive scale. These were all increasingly products of modem large-scale industry.

Question: The First World War was a war like no other before. Justify.


  1. The war included world’s leading industrial nations which now harnessed the vast powers of modem industry.
  2. The war was fought in air, on land and in water.

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