Question:Who are the people that work in an unorganized sector ? Mention any two social values which you have learnt from the working conditions of unorganized sector.
- In the rural areas, the unorganized sector mostly comprises the landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths).
- In the urban areas, the unorganized sector mainly comprises workers in small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport, etc. It also consists of those who work as street vendors, head load workers, garment makers, rag pickers, etc.
- Majority of workers from scheduled castes, tribes and backward communities find themselves in the unorganized sector.
(i) Most of the people working in unorganized sector belong to backward communities.
(ii) These workers face social discrimination.
Question: Distinguish between final goods and the intermediate goods.
- The goods which are used either for final consumption or for capital formation.
- The value of final goods is included in the national income.
- Example, television, bread or bakery products etc.
- The goods which are used up in producing the final goods and service.
- The value of intermediate goods is not include in the national income.
- Example, flour, cotton etc.
Question: Distinguish between the organised and the unorganized sector.
How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Answer: On the basis of employment conditions, the activities in the economy are classified into organised and unorganized sectors.
- Organised Sector This sector covers those enterprises which are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations. For example, Reliance Industries Ltd., GAIL etc.
- Unorganized Sector It includes those small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. Though there are rules and regulations but these are never followed here. For example, casual workers in construction, shops etc. In this sector there is no job security and the conditions of employment are also very tough.
Question: Distinguish between the public and the private sector.
State any four features of public and private sector.
Answer: Public sector:
- It is controlled and managed by the government.
- The main aim of the sector is public welfare.
- The sector provides basic facilities like education, health, food and security to the people.
- For example: the Indian Railway, the Post Office and the BSNL.
- It is controlled and managed by an individual or a group of individuals.
- The main aim of the sector is to earn maximum profits.
- The sector provides consumer goods to the people.
- For example: the Reliance, TISCO etc.
Question: What are the objectives of NREGA 2005?
- This scheme targets the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the poor women, who suffer from poverty.
- To provide livelihood to the people below the poverty line, this scheme guarantees 100 days of wage employment in a year to every rural household in the country.
- Under this scheme, the Gram Panchayat after proper verification will register households, and issue job cards to registered households. The job card is the legal document that entitles a person to ask for work under the Act and to get work within 15 days of the demand for work, failing which an unemployment allowance would be payable.
Question: What are the two sectors of economic activities on the basis of the ownership of resources? Explain.
Answer: The public and the private sector.
- Public Sector: It is the sector which is controlled, managed and owned by the government. For example, the Indian Railways.
- Private Sector: A private sector is owned, controlled and managed by an individual or by a group of individuals. For example, the Reliance Industries Ltd.
Question: Describe any four points of importance of primary sector in the Indian economy.
- Primary sector contributes more than 20% to the GDP of India.
- Its employment share is more than 55%.
- It is the most laboring sector of Indian economy.
- It covers agriculture, dairy, fishing, forestry which all contribute to the Indian economy.
Question: Enumerate the various causes of rural unemployment in India.
- Lack of skill and education: The most important factor responsible for rural unemployment is lack of education and skill.
- Domination of primary sector: Most of the people of rural areas are involved in primary activities. The possibility of unemployment in primary sector is more.
- Lack of Industrialization: Even after more than 60 years of independence more than 80% of the people are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Chances of disguised unemployment are very high in agriculture.
Question: How can employment opportunities be generated in the tourism and information and technology centers ?
- Government should encourage tourism by providing more facilities to the tourists.
- Medical treatment in India is very cheap as compared to developed nations.
- Vocational training should be merged in main-stream education pattern.
- Research and development work should be promoted.
- Government should set up more technology parks.