Question: (1) What is development? Mention any two features of development.
(2) What is national income?
(3) What is per capita income?
Define the term, ‘average income’.
- Development is a comprehensive term which include increase in real per capita income, improvement in living standard of people, reduction in poverty, illiteracy, crime rate, etc.
(i) Different persons have different developmental goals.
(ii) Income is a major component of development.
- National income is defined as the total value of all the goods and services produced within a country plus net income coming from abroad.
- When the total national income is divided by the total population, it is called the per capita income.
Per Capita Income = National Income / Population
Question: (1) State the criteria used to compare the different countries by the Human Development Report published by the United National Development Programme (UNDP).
(2) Which is the new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together?
(3) What is meant by Human Development?
(4) What is Sustainable Development?
(5) Which organisation measures HDR? Mention any three major indicators of / HDR.
- Per capita income, life expectancy at birth, literacy rate and other basic necessities like clean drinking water, sanitation etc.
- Sustainability of development.
- It is the process of enlarging people’s choices as well as raising the level of well¬being so that they can lead a purposeful and a creative life. Though the national income and the per capita income are the indicators of human development, but it includes many other elements like consumption, health, environment, education, freedom, security, non-violent atmosphere, etc.
- Sustainable Development is that process of economic development which aims at maintaining the quality of life of both the present and the future generations without harming the natural resources and environment.
(i) Educational level
(ii) Health status
(iii) Per capita income
Question: (1) Mention any two important aspects of our lives other than income.
(2) How can we achieve our hopes and possibilities in the present world ?
(3) What is ‘Public Distribution System’ (PDS) ?
(4) Mention two developmental goals of landless rural labourers.
(5) Why has Kerala a higher Human Development Index than Punjab in spite of low per capita income ?
- Health and Education.
- Through Democratic political process.
- It is a system through which the Government distributes ration to the poor at a reasonable rate through the ration shops.
- (i) More days of work and better wages.
(ii) Quality education for the children.
- (i) Because it has low infant mortality rate, (ii) It has higher literacy rate.
Question: Mention any four characteristics of development.
- Different people have different developmental goals.
- What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be destructive for the other.
- Income is the most important component of development, but along with income, people also seek equal treatment, good health, peace, literacy etc.
- For development, people look at mixed goals.
Question: Describe any three features of developed country.
- As per the World Bank Report 2012 any country with per capita income of US$ 12,276 per annum and above is termed as rich or developed country.
- Such countries have high literacy rate.
- Most of the people of these countries are engaged in service sector.
Question: What is PCI? Where it is used?
Answer: PCI is Per Capita Income. It is calculated by dividing the National Income of the country by population.
- It is used to compare different countries.
- The World Bank has divided the countries into rich or low income countries on the basis of per Capita income.
Question: What are the development goals of the following:
(1) Labourer (2) Rich farmer (3) Trader
Social and economic equality,
Low price food-grains.
Higher price for their produce,
Cheap inputs like seeds machinery, etc.
High price for their products.