Thursday , July 7 2022

Development: 10th CBSE Economics

Question: What should be the main criteria of development?

Answer: Development that leads to environmental degradation can be a curse for the entire planet and not just the polluting country. Excessive emissions from automobiles can lead to global warming endangering the very existence of a large number sea ports across the world.

Question: Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?


  1. Different persons have different notions of development because each of them seek different things.
  2. They seek things that are most important for them, i,e. which can fulfil their aspirations or desires.
    (i) Because people have different for e.g. boys differ from girls.
    (ii) Because life situations of persons are different for e.g. an urban unemployed youth is different from a boy from a rich urban family.

Question: Do the following two statements mean the same? Justify your answer.

  1. People have different development goals.
  2. People have conflicting development goals.

Answer: No, the given two statement do not mean the same: People have different developmental goals means that they seek things that are most important for them and that which can fulfill their aspirations or desires e.g.:

(I) Landless rural labours have their developmental goals as

  1. More days of work and better wages;
  2.  Local school is able to provide quality education for their children
  3. There should be no social discrimination and
  4. They too can become leaders in the village

(II) Prosperous farmers from Punjab have different developmental goals. They want/aspire

  1. Assured high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hardworking and cheap laborers.
  2. They should be able to settle their children abroad.

(III) A boy from a rich urban family desires

  1. To study abroad
  2. Have power through some prestigious position.

(IV) A girl from a rich urban family desires

  1. To get much freedom as her brother
  2. Should be able to decide what she wants to do in her life.
  3. Should be able to pursue studies abroad.

(2) People have conflicting developmental goal means that what may be development for one may be not for another. It may be destructive for the other for e.g. an industrialist may want more dams to get more electricity but this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of the people who are displaced. Such as tribal. e.g. Sardar Sarovar project.

(3) E.g. Also in Nandigram the farmers were opposing the construction of SEZs as their developmental goals were different from those of the industrialists.

Question: Give some egs where factors other than income are important?


  1. Equal treatment
  2. Freedom
  3. Security
  4. Respect

Question: Give three examples where average is used for comparing situations?

Answer: Average can be used for comparing the weight of children, height of children, performance of children.

For comparing countries average income is considered to be one of the most important criteria. Average income is also called per capita income. Per capita income is total income of the country divided by its total population.

Question: Why does Kerala have a low infant mortality rate?

Answer: It is so because,

  1. Adequate provision of basic health facilities
  2. Educational facilities
  3. Nutritional status of the people is high.

Question: Is crude oil essential for the development process?

  1. Yes, because availability is important of energy is prerequisite for mode a economic activities.
  2. It is important for generating electricity.
  3. It is needed for roadways, railways and airways.

Question: The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

Male (%)
Females (%)
Madhya Pradesh
All States

(1) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

(2) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.


  1. The nutritional level of people of Kerala is quite higher than the people – both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. Their ratio of the under-nourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh.
  2. There is enough food in the country, even then 40% of the people in the country are undernourished because:
    (i) A large number of people are so poor that they cannot afford nutritious food.
    (ii) In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and the poor people cannot get cheap food items.
    (iii) There is lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country. So many people remain backward and poor. As such, they are unable to get nutritious food.

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