Question: What is biodiversity?
Answer: It is the sum total of all the varieties of species of plants, animals and microorganisms living on the earth.
Question: What is flora?
Answer: Plants of particular region or period are referred to as flora.
Question: What is fauna?
Answer: Species of animals of a particular region or period are referred as fauna.
Question: “India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological diversity”. Justify.
Answer: India has nearly 8% of the total number of species in the world.
Question: What is IUCN?
Answer: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Question: What are normal species?
Answer: Species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival are classified as normal species.
Question: What are endemic species?
Answer: Species which are found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers.
Question: What are endangered species?
Answer: The species, which are in danger of extinction are called endangered species.
Question: What are vulnerable species?
Answer: The species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate.
Question: What are extinct species?
Answer: The species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur.
Question: Give two examples of rare species?
Answer: (1) Wild Asiatic buffalo (2) Hornbill
Question: Categorize the following as endangered or vulnerable species – Asiatic elephant, Indian Rhino.
Answer: (1) Asiatic elephant – Vulnerable species.
(2) Indian Rhino – Endangered species.
Question: Categorize the following as extinct or normal species – Pine, Asiatic Cheetah.
Answer: (1) Pine – Normal species
(2) Asiatic Cheetah – Extinct species
Question: Categorize the following as endemic and endangered species – Lion tailed macaque, Nicobar Pigeon.
Answer: (1) Lion tailed macaque – Endangered.
(2) Nicobar pigeon – Endemic.
Question: Mention any two factors responsible for depleting our forests and wildlife.
Answer: (1) Expansion of agriculture (2) Mining
Question: Name the Tiger Reserve which is seriously threatened by dolomite mining activity.
Answer: The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal.
Question: Mention a social impact of deforestation.
Answer: In many societies, women bear the major responsibility of collection of fuel, fodder, water and other basic subsistence needs. As these resources are depleted, the drudgery of women increases and sometimes they have to walk for more than 10 km to collect these resources.
Question: Mention any wildlife protection programme?
Answer: The Indian Wildlife Act 1972.
Question: Mention any one step which was undertaken under Indian Wildlife Act to protect the wildlife.
Answer: Trade in wildlife was declared illegal.
Question: What are permanent forests?
Answer: Reserved and protected forests are known as permanent forests.
Question: Which state has the largest area under permanent forests?
Answer: Madhya Pradesh.
Question: Name any two states which have large percentage of reserved forests of its forest area.
Answer: Jammu and Kashmir and Andhra Pradesh.
Question: Name any two states which have bulk of its forests area under protected forests.
Answer: Punjab and Haryana.
Question: Name any two states which have bulk of its forests area under unclassed forests.
Answer: Assam and Tripura.
Question: Name the place of state where people have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
Answer: Sariska Tiger Reserve – Rajasthan.
Question: What is Chipko Movement?
Answer: It was a movement launched by the people of the Himalayas against deforest.
Question: Name any two farmers / citizens group which have shown that adequate levels of diversified crop production without use of synthetic chemicals are possible and economically viable.
Answer: Beej Bachao Andolan and Navdanya