Question: What is proto-industrialization?
Answer: The parlyol phase industrialization in which large-scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralized units.
Question: How was proto-industrialization different from factory production?
Answer: Proto-industrialization was a decentralized method of production which was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers located in different places whereas under factories production became centralized. Most of the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
Question: Why was it difficult for the new European merchants to set up business in town in the 17th and 18th centuries?
Answer: This was because urban Crafts and trade guilds were very powerful in the town.
Question: What were guilds?
Answer: These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices. and restricted the entry of new people within the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.
Question: Which industry was symbol of the new era?
Question: Who created the cotton mill?
Answer: Richard Arkwright
Question:Who invented the steam engine?
Answer: James Watt
Question: Who discovered the Spinning Jenny?
Answer: James Hargreaves
Question: The introduction of which new technology in England angered women?
Answer: The Spinning Jenny
Question:Which pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports?
Question:What was Spinning Jenny?
Answer: It was a machine devised by James Hargreaves to speed up the spinning process. The machine could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time.
Question:Name any two regions of colonial India which were famous for large-scale industries.
Answer: (i) Bombay (ii) Bengal
Question: Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century?
Answer: Cotton and metal.
Question: “In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand”. Give reason.
Answer: Handmade products came to symbolize refinement and class.
Question: Why women workers attacked the spinning Jenny a machine which was introduced in Britain?
Answer: The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.
Question: Name the goods from India Which dominated the international market before the age of machine industries.
Answer: Silk and Cotton.
Question: Name any three pre-colonial ports of India.
Answer: Surat, Masulipatnam and Hoogly
Question: Why the pre-colonial ports i.e. Surat and Masulipatnam declined by the 1750’s?
Answer: Because the European companies gradually gained power-first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade.
Question: Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.
Answer: Bombay and Calcutta