According to World Health Organization (WHO) health is defined as a stage of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity and the term disease means dis ease or without ease or discomfort. Therefore the disease ca be defined as the malfunctioning of the body organs due to one reason or the other. The human disease can be broadly categoriesed in Communicable (infectious) and non-communicable (Non infectious) disease.
Among the communicable disease, malaria is caused by Plasmodium. Headache, nausea, muscular pains and high fever are its main symptoms. To protect from the disease one should have to protect himself from the mosquito bite and use of antimalarial medicines like Quinine, Paludrine. Metakalfin etc.
Influenza (Flu) is highly infectious disease caused by Myxovirus influenzae. Sneezing, coughing, fever, are its main symptoms. There is no effective control for influenza is available. Jaundice or hepatitis spread mostly through contaminated food and water with hepatitis virus. High fever, headache, loss of appetite with dark yellow urine are its main symptoms. Rabies (Hydrophobia) spread through bite of a rabies dog, Fox, Cats mainly. Severe headache high fever, and painful contraction of muscles of throat and chest. Severe damage to CNS causes paralysis and painful death. AIDS is caused by HIV virus. It causes secondary immune deficiency disorders. It is preventable but not curable. Loss of weight diarrhea, fall in Lymphocyte count are the main symptom.
Tuberculosis s caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here patient feels sick and weak. Loss of weight, chest pain and breathlessness are common features. Use of BCG vaccine protect from disease. Cholera is common during fairs and after flood. It is caused by vibrio cholerae and spread by contamination, Immunization of crowded place, use of boiled water personal hygiene helps in prevention. Use of ORS and anti bacterial medicines is suggested.
Typhoid is the most common communicable disease of India; occurring in the age group of 1-15 years mainly. It's caused by salmonella typhi. Headache and high fever, continues. TAB vaccination, provides immunity for 3 years. Typhoral vaccine also prevents typhoid. Diarrhea is mainly caused by some type of bacteria, protozoa and virus. Frequent loose motions and vomiting, leading to dehydration. Use of ORS, husk of isabgol seed, pulp of unripe banana and antimicrobial drugs provide relief.
Among non-communicable disease Marasmus, Kwashiorkor is mainly caused by protein deficiency while anemia and goitre is caused by deficiency of Iron and Iodine respectively.
Xeropthalmia, Beri-Beri, Rickets, Pellagra, Scurvey are the important vitamin deficiency disease. These disease can be cured by proper dietry supply.
Animal husbandry deals with the breeding, feeding and caring of domestic animals. Like any other farming practice; the production and management of live stock, requires definite planning for their shelter, nutrition, breeding, disease control, and proper economic utilization. Among milk producing milch breeds of cattle; Red Sindhi, Sahiwal and Gir are the main indigenous varieties while Jersey, Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss are very important exotic breeds of dual purposes. National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, Haryana develops Karan Swiss, Karan Fries and Frieswal cross breeds of very high milk producing capabilities. Among buffaloes Murrah, Mehsana and Surti are high milk producing variety produces 1800-2500 litres 1200-2500 litre and 1600 to 1800 litre milk respectively. Proper shelter and food is required for dairy animals to manage their good health and dietry requirements.
FMD, Anthrex, rinderpest, haemorrhagic septicemia, black quarter and cow pox are some common disease of domestic animals. Effective vaccines against all these major viral and bacterial disease have been developed and are available in our country, Poultry farming, Fish farming and meat providing livestocks are another new fields of animal husbandry.
In India the popular indigenous breed of poultry includes Aseel or (Indian game), Peela (golden red), Yakub (Black and red), Nurie (white) and Kajal (black) etc. and white leghom, Rhode island red are the common exotic breeds which are good egg layer and also meat yielding (broiler).
Fish is another important proteinaceous food resources. There is good scope of producing fish in our country. Our inland fishery includes 1.6 million hectares and our long coast line of 6,500 km provides a high potentials for fish production. Catla, Rohu, Mrigal with some exotic varieties like silver carp and grass carp are important edible fishes. Some disease like IPN (Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis) and VHS (Viral Haemorrhagic Septicemia) are well known infectious disease of the fish. Water pollution causes great harm to fish.
Besides poultry and fishes; goat, sheep and pig combined together constitute about 70% of the total meat supply in India. Nellore and Mandya are famous for production of wool, Dorset and Suffolk are popular cross-breed variety. About 20 variety of goat are found in our country; Jamunapari, Himalayan, Bengal and Assam hill breed are popular indigenous breed while Alpine, Toggenberg and Sannen are exotic breeds. disease like black quarter, Brucellosis and vibriosis are common bacterial disease of goat and sheep. Sore mouth, goat pox and rinderpest are their common viral disease.