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Reaching the Age of Adolescence

NCERT 9th Class (CBSE) Social Science: Population

Question: Explain the process of population change.

Answer: There are three main processes of change of population: birth rates, death rates and migration. The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.

  1. Birth rate: Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates.
  2. Death rate: Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates. Till 1980, high birth rates and declining death rates led to a large difference between birth rates and death rates resulting in higher rates of population growth. Since 1981, birth rates have also starred declining gradually, resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
  3. Migration: The third component of population growth is migration. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the : population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.

Question: Write an essay on the population distribution in India pointing out the geographical factors influencing the same.
Or
“Distribution of population in India is uneven”. Prove this statement with examples.

Answer: Distribution of population: The average density of population in India according to 2011 Census was about 382 persons per sq. km.

  1. Low density: The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Aruna-chal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh have very low to low population density. Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are mainly responsible for the sparse population in these areas.
  2. Moderate density: The bulk of the peninsular blocks and Assam have a moderate density of population. Distribution of population is influenced here by the rocky nature of the terrain, low to moderate rain, and shallow and less fertile soil.
  3. High density: The Northern Plains, Tamil Nadu and Kerala have high to very high density of population because of the plain terrain, rich and fertile soil, abundant rainfall and moderate climate.

Question: Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Answer: Population growth: Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years. Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year.

Population change: There are three main processes of change of population: birth rates, death rates and migration.The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The third component of population growth is migration. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population

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