Question: Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.
Answer : Nazism became popular for the following reasons
- After defeat in the First World War, Germany was forced to sign the harsh and humiliating Treaty of Versailles, in which it was made to accept the guilt for the war. The Germans felt disgraced and humiliated. Consequently, they were made to believe, by Hitler’s oratory, that he would restore Germany to its former glory
- Political parties like the Communists, Socialists, Democrats, etc were not united. There were conflicts between them and the government became weak. The Nazi Party took advantage of the situation and captured power.
- Democracy in Germany was relatively new and it was not strong. It did not appeal to the Germans. They wanted a party and a system that would re-establish the glory and prestige of Germany. So, they were attracted to the Nazi Party.
- Hitler was a great orator and with his speeches he was able to sway the masses and win their confidence. He was able to convince them that he would undo the injustice done and bring back the glory and dignity of the German people. He promised employment for those looking for work. He won over the youth by promising them a secure future.
- He got the support of the Army, the industrialists and the landlords because he opposed communism and socialism, which these people also opposed.
Thus, Hitler and the Nazi Party were able to win the support of all sections of Germans and so become popular.
Question: What are the peculiar features of Nazi thinking’s?
Answer: The peculiar features of Nazism were
- Nazis believed in the idea of one people, one empire and one leader.
- It did not tolerate other parties and tried to crush all other organisations and parties and wanted to remove socialism communism and democracy from Germany.
- According to Nazism there was no equality between people. In this view, the blue eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top while the Jews were located at the lowest rung.
- It was propagated that the Jews were responsible for the economic misery of the Germans.
- Nazis propagated war and glorified aggression.
- Nazis believed in the idea of Lebensraum on living space. i.e., new areas should be acquired so that more space is available for the Germans to settle.
- Nazis wanted to create a separate racial community of pure German by physically eliminating all those who were seen as undesirable by them.
- The Nazis believed that Jews were inferior and the cause of German misery and therefore should be totally eliminated.
- The Nazi argument was simple. The strongest race would survive and the weak ones would perish.
- The Aryan race was the finest. It had to retain its purity, become stronger and dominate the world.
Question: Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating a hatred for Jews.
Answer: Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for the Jews for the following reason
- The Jews were stereotyped as killers of Christ. They had been barred since medieval times from ownership of land.
- They were already hated as usurers or money-lenders. Violence against Jews, even inside their residential ghettos, was common. Hitler’s race theories fanned this hatred. He wanted all Jews to be eliminated from Germany.