Question: Mention any two factors which prompted the people of Bastar to rebel against the Britishers.
- The British government’s decision to reserve two-thirds of the forest
- To ban shifting cultivation
Question: Who was Surontiko Samin?
Answer: He was the tribal leader who was responsible for launching the Samin Movement against the Dutch Government. He argued that the state had not created wind, water, earth and wood, so it could not own it.
Question: What was blandongdiensten system?
Answer: Under this system, the Dutch exempted some villages from the rent on land if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. Later, instead of rent exemption, forest villagers were given small wages, but their right to cultivate forest land was restricted.
Question: Explain what is shifting cultivation. Why did European foresters regard this practice as harmful for forests ?
Answer: A method of farming in which a patch of ground is cultivated for a period of few years until the soil is partly exhausted or r overrun by weeds, and after which the land is left to natural vegetation while cultivation is carried elsewhere.
- Shifting cultivation made it harder for the government to calculate taxes. Therefore, the government decided to ban shifting cultivation.
- European foresters regarded this practice as harmful for the forests. They felt that land which was used for cultivation every few years could not j grow trees for railway timber.
- There was also the added danger of the flames spreading, and burning valuable timber.
Question: Who were Saminist? Mention any if two methods used by the Saminist to revolt against the Dutch.
- The Saminist laid down on their land when the Dutch surveyors came to reclassify communal and salary lands, and used to cry out, “Kangoo” (I own it).
- They refused to pay taxes, fines to accept wages and to leave rented or communal land when their leases expired.
Question: What changes one can observe towards forest policy since 1980’s?
- Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber has become a more important goal.
- The various governments have realized that the people who live near the forests must be involved.