Question: What is the difference between simple plurality and majority voting system?
Answer: Definitions of Plurality and Majority:
- Plurality system: Elections in India follow the First-Past-the-Post electoral system. It is also called simple plurality. In this voting system a single winner is chosen in a given constituency by virtue of her/his getting more votes than any other individual representative.
- majority system: However, in a majority voting system, the person or the party that receives more than half of the total votes cast, it declared the winner.
Question: Describe the executive and the emergency powers of the President.
Answer: The President has certain special powers to deal with emergency situations. He can impose emergency:
- In case of an external aggression or an armed rebellion.
- If the constitutional machinery of a state breaks down.
- If there is a threat to the financial stability of the country.
When a state faces the breakdown of constitutional machinery, the President takes over the rule of the state. This is called President’s Rule.
Question: How is an Ordinary Bill passed in the Parliyament?
Answer: The Bills are classified into two types:
Money Bills: These bills mostly relate to financial issues and issues where Consolidated Fund of India has to changed. Money Bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and is mostly done with the prior permission of the President.
Money Bills need not be necessarily passed by the Rajya Sabha,and also any changes suggested by the Rajya Sabha are not binding on the Lok Sabha.
Thus Lok Sabha has an upper edge in case of Money Bills.
Ordinary Bills: The other bills can be introduced in either house of the Parliament and needs to be passed by both the houses with a simle majority. In case of a deadlock a joint sitting of both the houses may be called which is presided by the speaker of the Lok Sabha.Then the President signs it and it is converted into a Law.
Note: This answer deals only with the passing of the bill. Many more steps like recommendation of Parliamentary Committees etc. are taken before a bill is even introduced.