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The Medieval World

NCERT 7th Class (CBSE) Social Science: The Growth of Regional Cultures

Question: Name two famous works of Persian literature and their authors from Medieval India.

Answer: The historian Barani, wrote the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi and Abdul Fazl wrote the biography of Akbar Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari.

Question: What was the language and dialect of the book Padmavat? What was its theme?

Answer: Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the Padmavat (1504 CE), a poem describing the story of Queen Padmini of Chittor, in Awadhi, a dialect of Hindi. The work was dedicated to Sher Shah and it is believed to be the first important work in Awadhi.

Question: Describe the origin of Urdu.

Answer: With the coming of the Turks and Persians, Urdu, a mixture of Persian and Hindi, was born. The word Urdu means “camp”, and it was initially the language used by soldiers to talk with each other. Urdu soon became the most common language used in the towns and cities of North India. Khusrau and later Ghalib wrote rich and beautiful poetry in Urdu.

Question: What were the major contributions of Amir Khusrau to music?

Answer: Amir Khusrau, the most famous musician of Delhi Sultanate period, fused Hindustani music with Persian and Turkish music to create new styles like qawwali and the khayal. He is also believed to have invented the tabla and the sitar.

Question: Write a short note on Shah Jahan’s interest in Painting.

Answer: Shah Jahan’s reign saw the art of painting reach its zenith. Artists of his time were influenced not only by the Hindu style but the European style as well. Portrait paintings became life-like and graceful during his time unlike the stiff ones of the earlier times.

Question: What are gharanas in Hindustani Music?

Answer: Gharanas in Hindustani music are the schools of music. In this Ragas are passed down from guru to shishya. Several schools or gharanas developed in different regions. They all have distinct style of music. Jaipur gharana, Lucknow gharana, Benaras gharana and Patiala gharanas are few examples.

Question: Name two classical dance forms and the regions to which they belong?

Answer: Kathak – North India and Bharatnatyam – Tamil Nadu.

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