Question: Describe the personal qualities of Babur.
Answer: The personal qualities of Babur are:
- He was a very strong man. Babur conquered a significant part of India. He made Delhi his capital.
- He was never discouraged by defeats. In grave crisis and heat of battle, he was calm and resourceful. He knew the art of using several tactics and strategies in war.
- As a soldier, Babur was fearless in battles. He was a fine fencer, good archer and superb horseman.
- In the Battle of Khanwa when his soldiers had lost courage, his emotional appeal to them worked wonders for them. They fought valiantly and won.
- Babur was a scholarly king. Babur also possessed good knowledge of Arabic and Persian. His Tuzki-Babri or Baburnama (Memoirs) ranks among the best autobiographies of the world. His collection of poems in Turki called the Diwan is also considered as one of the best contemporary poetic works.
- Babur constructed many buildings at Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Bayana and Dholpur. He planted several gardens of fruits and flowers.
Question: Give a short note of Akbar’s conquests.
Answer: Akbar was an ambitious man. After consolidating his rule over Delhi and Agra, he began to systematically subjugate all his potential rivals in the west, east, south and the north-west. By 1601 CE, the Mughal Empire stretched from Afghanistan to Bengal, and from Kashmir to the Deccan.
Akbar did not depend on the used of military force alone to strengthen and extend his authority. He established a strong administrative system. He also followed a policy of religious tolerance, thereby ensuring the support of the Rajputs and the Sikhs.
Question: Write a short note on the reforms and welfare activities carried out by Sher Shah.
Answer: Sher shah was an excellent administrator who introduced many reforms.
- He brought crime under control.
- He built the Grand Trunk Road (Sadak – i- Azam),
- He built a network of caravanserais (inns) for travellers, planted trees and dug wells.
- Sher Shah controlled the empire with the help of powerful central army. He personally inspected, appointed and paid the men.
- Sher Shah introduced the silver rupee, called rupiya, as a standard mode of exchange. Gold coins called mohur and copper coins called dam were also minted by his government.
Question: Why is Akbar know as Akbar the Great? Explain in detail.
Answer: Akbar was the greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty and one of the greatest rulers of India. He brought glory to the empire and is called Akbar ‘The Great’.
- Akbar was an ambitious man, he expanded the Mughal Empire to almost twice its size.
- He was an efficient administrator. He made many reforms which were even used by the British.
- To bring about greater order in the system of military administration he introduced Mansabdari system.
- He was a fair ruler. He gave important posts to Rajputs and other Hindus in his administration.
- Akbar was a liberal ruler who believed in the equality and unity of all religions. He followed a policy of religious tolerance.
- He was a great patron of art and was known for the brilliance of the court he maintained.