Question: What was the role of the zamindar in Mughal administration?
Answer: Role of the zamindar in Mughal administration:
- Zamindars were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains appointed by the Mughal emperor.
- They played a role of source in running of the administration of the Mughals.
- They collected tax on the produce of the peasantry which was the main source of income available to Mughal rulers.
- In some areas the zamindars exercised a great deal of power and sometimes zamindars and peasants of the same caste allied in rebelling against Mughal authority.
Question: How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
Answer: The debates with religious scholars were important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance as:
- Akbar’s interaction with people of different faiths made him realize that religious scholars who emphasized ritual and dogma were often bigots.
- The teachings by different religious scholars created divisions and disharmony among his subjects.
- This led to the idea of sulh-i kul or “universal peace” which means tolerance and not to discriminate between people of different religions in his realm.
- They framed a vision of governance around the idea of sulh-i kul focused on a system of ethics honesty, justice, peace which was universally applicable.
- This system of governance was later followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well.
Question: Why did the Mughals emphasize their Timurid and not their Mongol descent?
Answer: The Mughals emphasize their Mongol descent because Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. It was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors.
On the other hand, they were proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all because their great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398. They also celebrated their genealogy pictorially, each ruler getting a picture made of Timur and himself.
Question: How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
Answer: The land revenue was important as:
- The income from land revenue was the main source of income of the Mughal Empire.
- The Mughal empire was very large and therefore for running the administration and maintaining law and order, a huge amount of finance is needed which comes from the revenue.
- The land revenue is also important for salaries of the soldiers and officials and welfare works for the commons.
- Land revenue played a crucial role in the economy as well as administration of the Mughal empire.