Question: How did Babur secure his position in India?
Answer: He Secured his position by:
- Firstly he brought Punjab under his control.
- He marched Delhi and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in 1526 in the first battle of Panipat and laid the foundation of Mughal Empire.
- He had to face 2 other enemies: Rana Sanga of Mewar and Midini Rai of Malwa, both were defeated.
Question: Discuss the military campaigns of Shah Jahan.
Answer: Following were the successful military campaigns of Shah Jahan:
- The first thing that Shah Jahan had to face was battle in Bundelkhand and the Deccan.
- He extended his empire by annexing Ahmadnagar in Gujarat.
- He also forced rulers of Bijapur and Golconda to the suzerainty of Mughals.
Question: What do you know about the central and provincial administration of the Mughals.
Answer: Central administration: The king was the head of both civil and military administration he was assisted by many officials:
- The Wazir was the Prime Minister.
- The Diwan was the head of the revenue department.
- The Mir Bakshi looked after the military.
- The Khan-i-saman attended to the needs of the Royal household.
- The Sadr-i sadur Kept a record of grants and donations made by the being.
- The Qazi was the chief judge provincial administration.
- The empire was divided into provinces called Subas. Each suba was headed by a governor called ‘subadar’. He was the link between his province and the ruler.
- Suba was divided into sarkars or districts.
- Each sarkar is further divided into many Parganas, which consisted of number of villages. They are taken care by Panchayat.
- The ‘Kotwal’ looked after town administration. He performed both police and civil duties. His office was called ‘Kotwali’
Question: Why was it important to keep the news of Humayun’s death a secret till Akbar could reach Delhi?
Answer: It was important because at that time the Mughal empire was at a crucial stage and the other empires could get the opportunity to capture the mughals and extend their empire. Akbar was very young at that time.