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NCERT 7th Class (CBSE) Social Science: The Sultanate Period

NCERT 7th Class (CBSE) Social Science: Political Changes in 18th Century

Question: Who was Nadir Shah? What was the result of his attack on Delhi? or Describe the impact of Nadir Shah’s invasion upon Delhi.

Answer: Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran, sacked and plundered the city of Delhi in 1739 CE and took away immense amounts of wealth. As a result, the Mughal treasury became vacant. Delhi turned into a deserted place. He plundered Delhi of its wealth and took back with him, among other valuables, the Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor Diamond.  The New City, Shahjahanabad turned into rubble. Delhi, once so rich, became poor after Nadir Shah looted it.

Question: Who were the two sides in the Third Battle of Panipat? What was the outcome?

Answer: Ahmad Shah Abdali, the successor of Nadir Shah captured and defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 CE. These invasions quickened the process of disintegration of the Mughal Empire.

Question: Who was Qilich Khan? Name the dynasty and the kingdom established by him.

Answer: Qammaruddin Chin Qilich Khan, the leader of the Turani group of nobles, was appointed in 1713 CE as the viceroy of the Deccan. In 1722 CE, he was made the wazir at Delhi by the emperor Mohammad Shah.

He established the kingdom of Hyderabad in 1724 CE and ruled it in a semi-independent manner. However he never openly declared his independence from the Mughal emperor. Qilich Khan was given the titles of Nizam ul Mulk and Asaf Jah. He and his successors were known as the nizams of Asaf Jahi Dynasty.

Question: Who were the participants in the Battle of Plassey? What was the Outcome?

Answer: The participants in the Battle of Plassey were the British and Sirajuddaulah the Nawab of Bengal. Under Sirajuddaulah, Bengal became rich and prosperous state. It was, therefore, the first state to be targeted and captured by the British. The British defeated Sirajuddaulah in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 CE.

Question: Who were known as the king markers during the reign of the Later Mughal? Why were they called so?

Answer: Abdullah Khan Baraha and Husain Ali Khan Baraha were called king markers since they close who was to be made the king.

Question: Who was appointed by Akbar as the governor of Malwa? Name the capital he established.

Answer: Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber was made the governor of Malwa. Jai Singh founded his new capital at Jaipur.

Question: What were the two kinds of land taxes collected by the Marathas in the territories they did not rule?

Answer: The peasants who lived in territories administered by the Mughals or other rulers had to pay two taxes to Marathas:

Chauth – a land tax that was one-fourth of the revenue.

Sardeshmukhi – a land tax that was one-tenth of the revenue.

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