Human Environment: Settlement, Transport and Communication – 7th Class Geography Chapter 07
Question: How did early human beings depend entirely on nature?
Answer: Early human beings depended entirely on nature for food, clothing and shelter.
Question: What new skills did the human beings learn in course of time?
Answer: In course of time human beings learnt new skills, like:
- to grow food, use fire, use wheel
- to build homes, and
- to develop better means of transport and communication
In this way human beings modified the environment where they lived.
Question: What are settlements? How (when / why) did human beings start to have permanent settlements?
- Settlements are places where people build their homes and live there.
- Early human beings lived on trees and in caves.
- When they started to grow crops it became necessary to have a permanent home.
Human Environment – Question: How have the settlements changed over a period of time?
Answer: Settlements are places where people build homes and live.
They have changed over a period of time due to many other changes:
- Early man lived in caves and under trees and with the beginning of agriculture more permanent settlements were developed.
- The settlements grew near the river valleys due to availability of water and fertile soil.
- With the growth of trade and industries these settlements became larger leading to development of civilization.
- With the growth in technology these settlements further grew.
Question: Do you recall the names of civilizations that grew along the banks of rivers Indus, Tigris, Nile and Hwang-Ho?
- Indus – Indus valley civilization
- Tigris – Mesopotamia civilization
- Nile – Egyptian civilization
- Hwang-Ho – Chinese civilization
Human Environment – Question: What is a site? Which factors help to select a site for settlement?
Answer: The place where a building or a settlement is developed is called a site. The factors for selecting a site for settlement are:
- Favorable climate
- Availability of water, electricity
- Land for cultivation and construction
- Fertile soil
- Availability of other resources
Question: What are the two types of settlements on the basis of period for which they are occupied? Give some features of temporary settlements.
Answer: Settlements are of two types on the basis of period of their occupation. They are:
Features of Temporary Settlements:
Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements.
- The people who live in deep forests, hot and cold deserts, and mountains often reside in temporary settlements.
- They practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance.
Question: Explain major features of permanent settlements.
Answer: Features of Permanent Settlements:
- More and more settlements today are permanent settlements.
- In these settlements, people build homes to live in permanently.
- These settlements are generally found in the plains, on the uplands or near the water bodies.
- People have agriculture and industries as their major occupations.
- People also have engaged themselves in tertiary and quaternary activities.
- Houses in these settlements are built of bricks, concrete, cement and steel.
- The houses are also generally multistory.
Question: Define the term transhumance.
Answer: Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people specially nomads, who shift along with their herd in search of a place according to change in climate.
Question: Why was Gurpreet late for Mary’s birthday party?
Answer: Gurpreet came late that too coughing and wheezing due to heavy traffic and related pollution.
Question: What is the reason behind increased urban population?
Answer: People come looking for jobs, better education and medical facilities.
Question: How does rise in population affect the city?
Answer: Rise in population in cities due to availability of facilities is creating problems also:
- This leads to increase in number of vehicles and therefore traffic jams.
- Increase in slum dwelling and squatter settlements and unhygienic conditions.
- Shortage of water, power and other resources.
- Pollution because of vehicles and excess of garbage.
Question: What is situation of villages in comparison with cities?
Answer: Villages do not have big cinema houses or well equipped schools and hospitals. But, they have open spaces, fresh air to breathe.
Question: What are different types of settlements?
Answer: Settlements are of the following types:
- Rural settlements
- Urban settlements
- The villages are Rural Settlements
- In these settlements people are engaged in agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc
Rural settlements are of two types:
Compact and Scattered
- A Compact settlement is a closely built area of dwellings. They are built on flat land.
- In a scattered settlement dwellings are spaced over an extensive area. These settlements are mostly found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate.
- In rural areas, people build houses to suit their environment.
- In regions of heavy rainfall, they have slanting roofs.
- In the places where water accumulates in the rainy season, the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts.
- Thick mud walled houses with thatched roots are very common in areas of hot climate.
- Local materials like stones, mud, clay, straw etc. are used to construct houses.
- The towns are small urban settlements and the cities are larger urban settlements.
Question: What is transport? Give a brief history of transport development.
- Transport is the means by which people and goods move.
- In the early days it took a great deal of time to travel long distances.
- People had to walk and used animals to carry their goods.
- Invention of the wheel made transport easier.
With the passage of time, different means of transport developed but even today people use animals for transport.
- In our country, donkeys, mules, bullocks and camels are common.
- In the Andes Mountains of South America, llamas are used.
- Yaks are used in Tibet.
- The early traders from other countries used to take several months to reach India.
- They took either the sea route or the land route.
- Aeroplanes have made travel faster.
- Now it takes only 6-8 hours to travel from India to Europe.
- Modern means of transport thus saves time and energy.
Question: Name the means of transport.
Answer: Four Means of Transport:
Question: Describe roadways as a means of transport.
Answer: Roadways as a Means of Transport:
- The most commonly used means of transport, especially for short distances, are roads.
- They are of two types: Metalled (Pucca) and Unmetalled (Kuchcha)
- The plains have a dense network of roads.
- Roads have also been built in deserts, forests and even high mountains.
- Manali-Leh highway in the Himalayan-mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.
- Roads built underground are called subways / under passes or paths.
- Flyovers, are built over reused structures.
Question: Can you tell why there are more roads in the plains than in the hills?
Answer: Yes, because of the following reasons:
- Less costly
- Less time consuming
- Less needs for building bridges and culverts
- Dense population requires more road transport
- Agriculture and industries need roads urgently
- Movements of goods and traffic is the need of the plains.
Question: What are expressways? Give example.
Answer: 6-8 lane highways for fast moving traffic are called expressways e.g. Noida expressway.
Question: Account for Railways as a means of land transport.
Answer: Railways as a means of land transport:
- The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distanced quickly and cheaply.
- The invention of steam engine and the Industrial Revolution helped in speedy development of rail transport.
- Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced the steam engines.
- In several places super-fast trains have been introduced to make the journey faster.
- Railway network is well-developed in the plains.
- Advanced technological skills have enabled laying of railway lines in difficult mountain terrains also. But they are much fewer in number.
- Indian railway network is well-developed with improvement on stations, internet booking information etc.
- It is the largest in Asia.
Question: Describe inland waterways as a means of transport.
Answer: Inland Waterways:
In early days waterways were used for transportation.
- Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.
- They are mainly of two types: Inland waterways and Sea routes.
- Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways.
Some of the important inland waterways are:
- Ganga-Brahmaputra river system.
- Great Lakes in North America.
- River Nile in Africa.
Human Environment – Question: Write main features of Sea Routes.
Answer: Major features of Sea Routes:
Sea and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another.
- The terminal points are on these ports.
- Some of the important ports of the world are:
- Singapore and Mumbai in Asia.
- New York, Los Angeles in North America.
- Rio-de-Janerio in South America.
- Durban and Cape Town in Africa.
- Sydney in Australia.
- London and Rotterdam in Europe.
Name of some more Ports of the World are:
- New Orleans; Philadelphia, Boston, Miami
- Hawana, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Lima.
- Kolkata, Colombo.
- Manila, Shanghai.
- Perth, Darwin.
Human Environment – Question: Give an account of Airways as a means of transport.
Answer: Airways as a means of transport:
- Air transport is the fastest means of transport.
- It was developed in the early twentieth century.
- It is also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels.
- Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms.
- It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.
- Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas.
- In times of calamities they are extensively used for rescuing people and distributing relief supplies like food, water, clothes and medicines.
- Some of the important airports of the world are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt, Singapore and Hongkong.
Names of a few more airports are:
- Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Amritsar, Ahmedabad.
- Tokyo, Osaka.
- Singapore, Jakarta, Kualalumpur, Porth, Sydney, Yangoon, Bangkok.
- Hong Kong, Beijing
Human Environment – Question: Write a note on Communication.
- Communication is the process of conveying messages to others.
- With the development of technology, humans have devised new and fast modes of communication.
Different modes of communication are used:
- to provide information
- to educate
- to entertain
Through Newspapers, Radio, and Television we communicate with a large number of people. These are therefore called mass media.
Satellites have made communication very fast.
- Satellites have helped in
- Oil exploration
- Survey of forest
- Underground water
- Mineral wealth
- Weather forecast and
- Disaster warning.
- Electronic mails or e-mails through Internet have become popular these days.
- Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have also become very popular today.
- Internet not only provides us with worldwide information and interaction but also makes our lives more comfortable.
- Now we reserve tickets for railways, airways and even cinemas and hotels sitting at home.
- With this kind of inter-connectivity—people to people, people to services and institutions—across the world, we
are becoming a large global society.
Question: Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
- People in deserts or deep forests live in ………………………. settlements.
- In regions of heavy rainfall houses have …………………… roofs.
- …………….are built over raised structures.
- The Trans Siberian railways connect …………………….. to ………………..
- The place where building or a settlement develops is called …………………
- St. Petersburg, Vladivastok