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Urban Livelihoods

NCERT 6th class (CBSE) Social Science: Urban Livelihoods

Question: What works does Sudha do?

Answer: Sudha works as a Marketing Manager in a company which manufactures biscuits. The factoiy where the biscuits are made is outside the city. Sudha supervises the work of 50 salespersons who travel to different parts of the city. They get orders from shopkeepers and collect payments from them. She has divided the city into six regions and once a week she meets the salespersons of each region. She checks their progress report and discusses problems they face. She has to plan the sales in the entire city and often has to work late and travel to different places.

Question: What are various ways of earning livelihood in the urban areas? Discuss.

Answer: People in urban areas are engaged in a variety of activities in order to earn their living. Some are doing the work of a cobbler while some are barbers busy with their work. A number of people earn their livelihood by pulling rickshaw. Vendors are also seen here and there selling household articles. In urban areas showrooms of different items can be seen. These showrooms are run by businesspersons. These people employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers for their showrooms. Several urban people are engaged in Factories where they work for long hours. They don’t have job security still they continue their work because they don’t have other option. But there are also people who do office work with full job security. They get regular salary and enjoy other benefits of job like savings for old age, holidays, medical facilities etc.

Working in Call Centres is a new form of employment in big cities. It has attracted a large number of young men and women. Thus, we see that with a growing population, job opportunities have also increased and people are availing these opportunities according to their talent and aptitude.

Question: Write in brief on ‘Call Centres’.

Answer: Call Centres in big cities are providing new job opportunities to young and enthusiastic men and women. A Call Centre is a centralized office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc. Call Centres are generally set up as large rooms with work stations that include a computer, a telephone set and supervisor’s stations.

India has become a major centre not only for Indian companies but also foreign companies. They set up Call Centres here as they can get people who can speak english and will work for lower wages.

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