Question: Name a ritual used to recognize someone as a ‘raja’.
Answer: ‘Ashvamedha’ was one ritual used to recognize kings.
Question: Which category of people was excluded from the rituals?
Answer: The ‘shudras’ were excluded from rituals.
Question: Name two ‘janapadas’ in North India.
Answer: Hastinapura and Atranjikhera
Question: How were cities fortified?
Answer: Cities were fortified by building huge walls of wood, brick or stone around them.
Question: For what did rulers need taxes?
Answer: Rulers needed taxes to build huge forts and to maintain big armies.
Question: Name tivo rivers that flowed through Magadha.
Answer: Ganga and Son were two rivers that flowed through Magadha.
Question: Name some places conquered by Alexander.
Answer: Alexander conquered parts of Egypts and West Asia.
Question: Which rulers conquered the last of the ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’?
Answer: The Gupta rulers conquered the last of the ‘ganas’ or ‘sanghas’.
Question: What are sources that tell us about the early kingdoms?
Answer: The main sources that tell us about the early kingdoms are the Vedic texts, such as Brahmans and the Upanishads and Buddhist texts, such as the Jataka Tales.