Question: What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer?
Answer: Upanishadic thinkers wanted to know about life after death. Some wanted to know why sacrifices should be preformed. They felt there had to be something permanent in the universe that lasted even after death. Their ideas are recorded in the Upanishads.
Question: What were the main teachings of the Mahavira?
Answer: Mahavira taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wish to know the truth must leave their homes. Mahavira told them to follow ‘ahimsa’—not hurting any living being.
Question: Why do you think Armgha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha?
Answer: Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and he was the Wise One. His stories could be inspirational and motivational to students. So Anagha’s mother wanted her to know his story.
Question: Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join the ‘sangha’? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer: Slaves were allowed to join ‘sanghas’. Those who followed Buddhism did not believe in dividing the society and Buddha taught that all humans are equal.
Question: Make a List of at least five ideas and questions mentioned in this lesson. Choose three from the List and discuss why you think they are important even today.
Answer: Ideas and questions mentioned in the lesson and their relevance today
- Life is full of suffering and unhappiness. It is due to our unfulfilled desires. This is true today since most people are not satisfied with what they have. They resort to unfair means out of greed and end up in suffering and trouble.
- Our actions (‘Karma’) affect us in our current life as well as next life.
- We should not hurt or kill any living being, according to Mahavira. This is important because every living being has a desire to live.
- Thinkers wanted to know about life after death and they wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed. Sacrifices are not justified since living being should be killed.
- Upanishadic thinkers also felt that something was permanent in the universe and it lasted even after death.
Question: Write a short note on the Buddha’s teachings.
Answer: The Buddha said that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. He said that its cause lies in our unfulfilled desires and dissatisfaction (‘tanhaj. He suggested moderation in everything as a solution. He told people to be kind and to respect each and every life. Our actions (‘Karma’) affect us in this life and the further ones. The Buddha encouraged people to think for themselves rather than simply accept his teachings.