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NCERT 5th Class (CBSE) Mathematics: Application Of Percentage


Mr Gupta makes very good rocking chairs. It coast him Rs. 795 to make one rocking chair. He sells it in his furniture shop at Rs. 900.

Rs. 795 is the Cost Price (CP) of the chair.

Rs. 900 is the Selling Price (SP) of the chair.

Since he sells it for more than it costs to make, he earn money by doing so. This is called his profit.

Rs.    900     SP
Rs. – 795      CP
Rs.   105  

Formula to calculate profit → SP – CP = Profit

There is one rocking chair with a small scratch on it. Mr Gupta sells this particular chair for Rs. 715. Since he sells it for less than what it costs him to make it, he loses money on the sale. This is called his loss.

Rs.    795     CP
Rs. – 715     SP
Rs.     80  

Formula to calculate Loss → CP – SP = Loss


  1. When SP > CP the difference (SP – CP) is Profit.
  2. When SP < CP the difference (CP – SP) in Loss.

Mr Gupta delivered one rocking chair to another town. It costs him Rs. 105 to do so. The cost price of this particular chair is now Rs. 975 + Rs. 105 = Rs. 900. If he sell this chair at Rs. 1000 what is his profit or loss on the chair?

SP = Rs. 1000

CP = Rs. 900

Comparing the SP and CP, we see that SP > CP , so there is a profit.

SP – CP = Profit

1000 – 900 = 100

Mr Gupta makes a profit of Rs. 100 on the chair.

Finding Cost Price

Ramu bought apples from a farmer and sold them in the market. He sells them at Rs. 70 for a kilo and makes a profit of Rs. 23 on each kilo. How much did Ramu pay per kilo apples?

He also bought oranges from the farmer. He sold them in the market at Rs. 95 per dozen. This was at a loss of Rs. 12 per dozen. What did 1 dozen oranges cost him?

When there is profit
When there is loss 
Selling price of one kilo apples = Rs. 70
Selling price of one dozen oranges = Rs. 95
Profit = Rs. 23
Loss = Rs. 12
Cost price = ?
Cost price = ?
CP = SP – Profit
CP = SP + Loss
CP = Rs. 70 – Rs. 23 = Rs. 47
CP = Rs.95 + Rs. 12 = Rs. 107
Check: When SP > CP there is a profit
Check: When CP > SP there is a loss
SP – CP = Profit
CP – Sp = Loss
Rs. 70 – Rs. 23 = Rs. 47
Rs. 107 – Rs. 95 = Rs. 12
Answer: The cost price of a kilo apples was Rs. 47
Answer: The cost price of a dozen oranges was Rs. 107

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