Test, Measurement & Evaluation: 11th Class Chapter 7
- A test is a tool to evaluate the skill, behavior, knowledge, capacities of an individual or a group.
It is a tool through which a player’s level of performance as fitness, ability, knowledge and skill are measured. Such as speed in seconds, weight in pounds, height in inches etc. are measured in specific units.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
- Body mass index is a measure of Body fat. It is used to learn about a person’s weight according to hi height and it is calculated by the BMI formula:
Body Mass Index (BMI) = Weight of body / Height x Height
= Weight in kg / Height in meter
Categories Of Body Mass Index (BMI)
- Through the category of BMI, one can determine whether he is required to reduce or increase the weight for being a physically fit.
Obesity Class I
Obesity Class II
Obesity Class III
18.5 – 24.9
25.0 – 29.9
30.0 – 34.9
35.0 – 39.9
Waist – Hip Ratio
- It is an important tool to measure the fat around the waist and hips. It is calculated on the basis of the following formula:
Waist-hip ratio = Circumference of waist / Circumference of hips
- The circumference around hips is measured by tape keeping in mind that it’s the widest.
- The waist circumference in measured around belly button or just above it.
Importance Of Test, Measurement & Evaluation:
- To know about the progress: Both physical education instructors and students know the progress level of achievement so that they can enhance the level of progress. If student are not aware of their level, they may fail to enhance the progress level.
- Ranking Group:With the help of measurement the ranking of students can be done. The classification of the group can lead to better group performance.
- For Motivation: Through the test, measurement and evaluation of student’s performance, he can compare his progress level with the progress level of others so that he too can feel motivated to achieve that level.
- To know abilities & capacities: With the help of effective tool, the teachers can come to learn those abilities and capacities of their students which can be helpful in the preparation of effective planning.
- Prediction of achievements: The performance can be evaluated easily with the help of test and measurement. On the basis of present performance of students the achievement of student can be predicted.
It was used by renowned Psychologist William H. Sheldon to describe a body type on the basis of human physique.
- Endomorph body type is solid and soft and it has tendency to store fat which leads to wider and higher waist.
- The built of endomorphs is shorter with thick & short limbs.
The following are the traits of Endomorph body:
(i) Large build
(ii) Round Physique
(iii) Soft & round body
(iv) Generally shorter
(v) Wide waist
(vi) Slow metabolic rate
(vii) Hardly lose fat
- A person having mesomorph physique has a large bones and muscles.
- They possess athletic physique.
- They easily gain and lose body weight.
The following are the traits of Mesomorph body:
(i) Athletic Body
(ii) Hard and tough body
(iii) Rectangular shaped body
(iv) Long Torso
(v) Narrow Waist
(vi) Large head
(vii) Gain fat more easily than ectomorph
- An typically skinny person.
- They have a light build with small joints and lean muscles.
- Long thin limbs with stringy muscles.
The following are the straits of Ectomorph body:
(i) Small and delicate frame and bone structure
(ii) Flat chest
(iii) Small & thin shoulders
(iv) Lean muscle mass
(v) Fast metabolic rate
(vi) Narrow hips
(vii) Finds difficulty in gaining weight
Measurement Of Cardiovascular Fitness
Harvard Step Test
I. Harvard Step Test: It is develop by Brouha and his associates in 1943. Purpose of this test is to measure cardiovascular fitness.
- Bench which is 20 inches / 50.8 cm high.
Procedure: The athlete is instructed to step up and down on the platform at a rate of 30 steps per minute for 5 minutes or until exhaustion occurs. The exhaustion is defined as when the athlete cannot maintain the stepping rate for 15 second and this can be administered by metronome. After the completion of stepping, the athlete is advised to step down. After this heart rate is measured between 1 to 1.5 minutes after finishing. The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute. The heart rate can be measured by the method given ahead.
- Manual Method: the heart rate can be measured from any spot on the body at which any artery is closed is closed to the surface so that a pulse can be felt. The most common place for measuring the heart rate is wrist and neck.
- Monitor Method: a heart rate monitor or electro cardiogram can be used to measure more accurate heart rate. A heart rate monitor consists of a transmitter and receiver. The heart muscles transmit an electron signal when they contract. The transmitter then sends ans electromagnetic signal containing heart rate data to the wrist receiver which displays the heart rate.
(i) Short Form: In this form only heart rate is counted from 1 – 1.5 minutes after finishing.
(ii) Long Form: In this form the heart rate is counted three times. Firstly form 1 to 1.5 minutes then between 2 to 2.5 minutes, and between 3 to 3.5 minutes.
Fitness Index For Short Form = (100x test duration in seconds) divided by (5.5x pulse count between 1 and 1.5 minutes).
Fitness Index For Long Form = (100x test duration in seconds) divided by (2x sum of heart beats in the recovery periods).
Example of scoring fitness index
For example the test was conducted for an individual and following reading were recorded:
Total duration of stepping 300 seconds
1 – 1.5 minutes = 95
2 – 2.5 minutes = 85
3 – 3.5 minutes = 75
Short form fitness score
FI Score = (100*300)/(5.5*95) = 57.4
Long form fitness score
FI Score = (100*300)/(95+85+75) = 58.8
Then by using following table the cardiovascular fitness is determined:
- Requires minimal cost
- Requires minimum equipment
- Simple to set up and conduct
- Easy to perform for taller people.
- Obese cannot perform well.
II. Measurement Of Muscular Strength – Kraus Weber Test
Kraus Weber Test
- It was introduced by Kraus and Hirschland. It consists of six tests:
Test – 1
- Purpose: To measure the strength of the abdominal and Psoas muscles
- Procedure: The subject lies in supine position i.e., flat on his back and hands behind his neck, examiner holds his feet to keep him on ground and he is asked to perform one sit-up.
- Scoring: If he performs he passes and gets 10 marks else he fails and receives 0 marks.
Test – 2
- Purpose: To measure the strength of the abdominal muscles
- Procedure:The subject lies in supine position but his knees are bent and ankles remain in touch with his buttocks. The examiner holds the feet of the subject. After command the subject has to roll up to sitting position.
- Scoring: If he performs one sit-up in this condition, he passes else he fails. The distance from spine to sitting position is marked from 0 – 10.
Test – 3
- Purpose: To measure the strength of the Psoas and lower back
- Procedure: The subject is advised to lie on supine on the table and hands to be kept behind the neck. Then he is advised to lift the legs to 10 inches above the table.
- Scoring: If he can raise his feet 10 inches from the ground for 10 second then he gets 10 marks. The scores are awarded keeping in mind the time for which the subject uplifts his legs.
Test – 4
- Purpose: To measure the strength of the upper back
- Procedure: The subject lies in prone position (i.e. on his stomach with a pillow under his lower abdomen and his hands behind his neck) on the table, examiner has to press the back and trunk of subject. The subject is advised to life the legs to 10 inches above the table.
- Scoring: If subject can raise his legs in such a condition for 10 seconds then he gets 10 else he is marked as per the time he maintains the desired upliftment.
Test – 5
- Purpose: To measure the strength of the lower back
- Procedure: The subject lies in prone position on the table, examiner has to press the legs and hips of the subject. The subject is advised to life the upper body to 10 inches above the table.
- Scoring: The subject is market 10 if he uplifts his body in such a condition for 10 seconds else he is marked for the time he maintains the desired upliftment.
Test – 6
- Purpose: To measure the strength of the back hamstring
- Procedure: It is also known as floor – touch test, measured flexibility of the trunk, subject is asked to lean down slowly to touch the floor with finger tips for 3 seconds, bouncing or jerking is not allowed, examiner holds his knees to prevent any bend.
- Scoring: Full 10 marks are given for complete touch. If subject is unable to touch by two inches he is awarded 8 marks.
Sit and Reach Test
Purpose: The main aim of sit and reach test is to determine flexibility of an individual.
Equipment Required: A wooden sit and reach box.
- The subject advised to sit on floor with legs stretched out straight ahead.
- Shoes should be removed.
- The soles of the feet are placed flat against the box.
- Both knees should be locked and pressed flat to the floor.
- The palm must face the downwards and the hands on top of each other or side by side.
- After this the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as possible and holds that position for a moment.
- During the holds the distance is recorded.
- No jerky moment is allowed.
Scoring: The score is is recorded to the nearest centimeter or half inch ass the distance reached by the hand.
600 m Run / Walk Test
Purpose: The main aim of this test is to measure aerobic fitness of an individual.
Equipment Required: Standard athletics track, marking cones and stopwatch.
- There are several tests which involve running and walking to complete 600 m.
- To start, all participants line up behind the starting line.
- On the command ‘go’, the clock will start, and they will begin running at their own pace.
Scoring: The total time taken to run 600 m is recorded.
Body Composition: Test, Measurement & Evaluation
Slaughter – Lohman Children Skin Fold Formula
It is conducted to find out body fat among the children of 8 – 10 years. To calculate body fat percentage skin fold measurement at triceps and calf are recorded.
Measurement Of Skin Fold at Triceps: Taken vertically on back of arm and in the center of top of shoulder point (Acromial process) and elbow (Olecranon process), using a vertical pinch. Arm should be relaxed with palm of hand facing forward.
Measurement Of Skin Fold at Calf: The subject is advised to place the foot on char at approx 90 degrees. Then a vertical pinch parallel to long axis of leg is given. At the larges circumference of calf and on medial surface of calf skin fold measurement is taken.
Boys: % Body fat = 0.735(triceps+calf) + 1.0
Girl: % Body fat = 0.610(triceps+calf) + 5.1
Test, Measurement & Evaluation: Questions Carrying 03 Marks
- Explain the method of measurement of BMI?
- How hip-waist ratio test is administered?
- What do you mean Somatotypes?
- Write the characteristics of Ectomorphs?
- What are the traits of Endomorphs?
- Describe the traits of Mesomorphs?
- Explain Strength test for health related fitness.
Test, Measurement & Evaluation: Questions Carrying 05 Marks
- Explain the importance of test and measurement in Physical Education?
- Define BMI? Explain the procedure for the calculation of BMI?
- How waist-hip ratio test is administered?
- Explain the concept of Endomorphy?
- Describe Mesomorphy?
- Discuss about Ectomorphy?
- How health related fitness is measured?