Question: What is water scarcity? Mention any four factors responsible for water scarcity.
What is meant by water scarcity and give any two causes of water scarcity ?
Answer: Shortage of water as compared to its demand is known as water scarcity.
Factors responsible :
- Over-exploitation of water sources.
- Improper management.
- Unequal access of water among different social groups.
- Industrialisation and urbanisation.
Question: “Overpopulation or large and growing population can lead to water scarcity.” Explain. Mention any two lessons which you have learnt from this.
Answer: Overpopulation or large and growing population can lead to water scarcity as:
- More population means more demand for water.
- A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.
- To facilitate higher food grain production, water resources are being over exploited to expand the irrigated areas and the dry season agriculture.
- Overutilisation of water results in lowering of the groundwater levels.
(i) There is need to check the growth of population.
(ii) Human beings need to care for nature.
Question: ‘Large multipurpose projects also lead to land degradation.’ Explain.
Answer: Multipurpose projects lead to land degradation because:
- Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive crops. This has led to the salinisation of the soil.
- Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of rivers causing poor sediment flow.
- The flood plains are deprived of silt.
- Multipurpose projects induce pollution which leads to land degradation.
Question: Explain various problems associated with poor people due to construction of large dams.
- Construction of large dams leads to the large-scale displacement of the local communities.
- Local people have to give up their land and livelihood.
- Pbor people lose meagre access and control over resources for the greater good of the nation.
- The displaced people do not get full rehabilitation facilities from the government,
- The landless people have to work as labourers in factories or construction sites. Their lives become miserable.
Question: Name any two movements that have been started to oppose multipurpose projects. Who are benefitted from such projects ?
- Two movements that have been started to oppose multipurpose projects are :
(i) Narmada Bachao Andolan was started against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being
built across the Narmada river in Gujarat.
(ii) Tehri Dam Andolan – Resistance to these projects has primarily been due to the large-scale displacement of local communities.
- The landowners and large farmers, industrialists and a few urban centers are benefitted from such projects.
Question: Why is rooftop rainwater harvesting important in Rajasthan ? Explain.
- The rainwater stored in tankas is an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
- Rainwater is considered the purest form of natural water.
- Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tankas to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
- There is lack of perennial rivers in Rajasthan.
- The rainfall is not reliable in this region.