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Water resources: 10th CBSE Geography

Question: How is freshwater obtained?

Answer: The freshwater is obtained from precipitation, surface run off and groundwater that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydro-logical cycle.

Question: What is hydro-logical cycle?

Answer: The continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of earth.

Question: What is the importance of hydro-logical cycle?

Answer: The freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and groundwater that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydro-logical cycle. All water moves within the hydro-logical cycle ensuring that .water is renewable resource. .

Question: What is water scarcity?

Answer: Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demand.

Question: “The availability of water resources varies over space and time”. Give reasons.

Answer: Water resources varies over space and time due to the variation in seasonal and annual precipitation.

Question: What percentage of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans?

Answer: 96.5%

Question: How much per cent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as fresh water?

Answer: 2.5

Question: What are the sources of fresh water?

Answer: Precipitation, surface run off and groundwater.

Question: How is freshwater being renewed?

Answer: The freshwater is being renewed through the hydro-logical cycle.

Question: Mention any two regions which are expected to face water shortage.


  1. Regions having low rainfall
  2. Regions which are drought prone

Question: What is a dam?

Answer: ‘A dam’ is a barrier across the flowing water that obstructs dissects or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.

Question: What is a multipurpose project?

Answer: A multipurpose project is that which fulfills a variety of purposes at the same time, for example – irrigation, generation of electricity, flood control, fish breeding, soil conservation etc.

Question: Who proclaimed dams as the temples of modem India?

Answer: Jawaharlal Nehru

Question: Why were the multipurpose river projects considered as temples of modern India by Jawaharlal Nehru?

Answer: These would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialization and growth of the urban economy.

Question: Name any two social movements which have been launched against the multipurpose projects.

Answer: Narmada Bachao Andolan and ‘Tehri Dam’ Andolan.

Question: What was considered as a viable alternative to the multipurpose projects and why?

Answer: The. disadvantages and rising resistance against the multipurpose projects, has lead us to conclude that water harvesting system is a viable alternative, both socio-economically and environmentally.

Question: Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops”. Mention its ecological consequence.

Answer: Salinisation of the soil

Question: What was the primary reason for launching ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’?

Answer: Narmada Bachao Andolan was launched due to the large scale displacement of local communities.

Question: What is silt?

Answer: A fine soil which is formed in flood plains.

Question: How people used to conserve or harvest water in hills and mountainous regions?

Answer: By building diversion channels like the ‘guts’ or ‘kuls’.

Question: How people used to harvest water in the flood plains of Bengal?

Answer: By building inundation channels to irrigate their fields.

Question: How people harvest water in the semi- arid and arid regions of Rajasthan?

Answer: By building underground tanks.

Question: Many people of arid and semi-arid regions construct under-ground rooms adjoining the water tanks. Give reason.

Answer: By beating the summer heat it would keep the room cool.

Question: Name two techniques of roof top rain water harvesting.


  1. Recharge through hand pump
  2. Recharge through abandoned dug well

Question: Name any two states where roof top water harvesting is most common.

Answer: Meghalaya and Rajasthan.

Question: Define the term Tankas.

Answer: Tankas are the underground tanks for storing drinking water.

Question: Which is the purest form of natural water?

Answer: Rainwater

Question: What is Kul?

Answer: It is a circular village tank from which water is released and taken when required.

Question: Name any two states which are involved in Krishna-Godavari-dispute.

Answer: Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Question: Name the river on which the Hirakud dam is located.

Answer: Mahanadi

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