Question: Describe the event of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
Answer: The events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe:
- Students and other members of educated middle class began to Set-up Jacobin dubs after the events in France reached the different cities of Europe.
- Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies.
- The French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Question: What were the changes that took place after the French revolution In France?
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
- The ideas of la patrie and Ie citoyen emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
- New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
- Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
- Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Question: Briefly describe the concept of liberalism which developed in the Europe in early 18th century?
- The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.
- For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
- Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.
- It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
- In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Question: List any three features of the Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code.
- It did away with all privileges based on birth.
- It established equality before law and secured the right to property.
- It simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
Question: Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer: Culture also played an important role in the development of nationalism along with wars and territorial expansion:
- Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
- The effort of romantic artists and poets was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
- It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
Question: How did the local people in the areas conquered by the Napoleon react to French rule ? Explain.
Answer: In the areas conquered, the reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed:
- Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mains the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty.
- But soon initial enthusiasm faded as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom.
- Increase in taxes, censorship and forced conscription in French armies were seen as outweighing the advantage of administrative changes which Napoleon brought.
Question: Why were 1830s called the years of great economic hardship in Europe ? Give any three reasons.
“The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe”. Support the statement with arguments.
- The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
- In most countries, there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
- The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Question: How was the ideology of liberalism allied with National Unity in early 19th century in Europe? Explain in three points.
Answer: The ideology of liberalism allied with Nationalism:
- Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law.
- It emphasised on the concept of government by consent.
- It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges.
- It believed in a constitution and representative government through Parliament.
- It emphasised the inviolability of private property.
Question: Explain the conditions which were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes. How did it end in 1834?
- There was absence of freedom of markets.
- State imposed various restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- Presence of large numbers of states created problems as each had its own currency, and weights and measures.
- Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation.
- In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
- The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.