Question: What is soil erosion? Name any four states which have been affected by gully erosion.
Answer: The removal of soil by the forces of nature, particularly wind and water is called .soil erosion. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.
Question: HOW does the soil of the Ganga-Yamuna plain differ from that of central Maharashtra?
Answer: The Ganga-Yamuna plain has alluvial soils, whereas the central Maharashtra has black soils. The alluvial soils are formed by the depositional work of rivers in the river valleys, flood plains and deltas. The black soils develop from volcanic rocks from where the lava flows.
Question: What are the causes of soil erosion in: (1) Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas.
(2) North-Eastern parts of India.
(3) Arid regions of India.
- Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas: Destruction of vegetation is the main cause of soil erosion in hilly areas because when vegetation is removed, the soil surface becomes loose, and is more easily removed by the running water.
- North-Eastern parts of India: Heavy rainfall which leads to frequent floods is responsible for soil erosion.
- Arid regions of India: In deserts and dry regions, where there is little or no vegetation, wind is the most powerful agent of soil erosion, blowing away fine particles of sand depositing them in other areas making both the areas unproductive.
Question: What are the differences between the alluvial soil found in the upper course of rivers and that found in die lower courses?
Answer: Alluvial soil in the upper course:
- The soil parties are bigger in size.
- The soils are coarse.
- The soils in the upper course are less fertile.
Alluvial soil in the lower course:
- The soil particles are smaller in size.
- The soils are less coarse.
- The soils in the lower course are fertile.
Question: Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked? Explain.
Answer: Large scale over-grazing has caused severe land degradation.
Measures to check:
- A forestation and proper management of grazing.
- Planting of shelter belts.
- Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
- Control on overgrazing.
Question: What is resource planning ? Mention the steps which are involved in resource planning.
Explain the three steps involved in the resource planning in India.
What are the three stages of resource planning in India?
Answer: “Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper or judicious use of resources. ”
Resource planning is a complex process which involves:
- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping, qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
- Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
- Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
question: Explain the classification of resources on the basis of exhaustibility.
- Renewable resources: “Renewable resources are the natural resources which can be used again and again or can be reproduced by physical, mechanical and chemical processes”. Solar energy, air, water and soil are some of the renewable resources of energy.
- Non-renewable resources: “Non renewable resources are the natural resources that cannot be replaced at all or within a reasonable time”. Fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal are examples of non renewable resources. These resources are accumulated over millions of years. They are considered to be non-renewable resources because once they are used up, they are gone forever.
Question: Explain the classification of resources on the basis of origin.
Give two examples of abiotic resources.
What are biotic and abiotic resources ? Give two examples for each.
- All those resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are known as biotic resources.
- Biotic resources can be classified as producers, consumers and decomposers.
- Forests, livestock, human beings are examples of biotic resources.
- All those resources which are composed of nonliving things are called abiotic resources.
- Abiotic resources can be classified as renewable and non renewable.
- Light, rain, rocks, soil, water are examples of abiotic resources.
Question: Explain the classification of resources on the basis of ownership.
Explain what is meant by national resources and individual resources.
- Individual Resources: Resources which are owned by private individuals are known as individual resources. Plots, fields, houses, cars, books, etc., are some examples of individual resources.
- Community Owned Resources: The resources which are accessible .to all the members of the community are known as community resources. Village ponds, public parks, playgrounds, etc., are some examples of community resources.
- National Resources: All the resources which are under the control of state or union government are known as national resources. All the resources within political boundaries are national resources because the government has the power to acquire even the private properties
- International Resources: These resources are owned and regulated by international institutions. The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to the open ocean, and no individual country can utilize these without the concurrence of international institutions. India has got the right to mine manganese nodules from the bed of the Indian Ocean from that area which lies beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone.