Question: Give reasons :
(1) Alluvial soil can hold moisture, and is very fertile.
(2) Black soil needs to be tilled after the first rain.
(3) Red soil is ideal for dry farming.
(4) The percentage of organic matter in desert soil is very low.
(5) Red soil is less fertile.
- Because the alluvial soil is made up of fine particles. The soil is very fertile because it is rich in mineral nutrients like potash and lime.
- The soil is sticky, and difficult to work unless tilled immediately after the first rain.
- Because it does not require much moisture.
- Because of the dry climate and absence of vegetation.
- Because it is deficient in phosphorus, nitrogen, lime and humus.
Question: Name two important crops associated with the following types of soil :
(1) Alluvial soil (2) Black soil
(3) Desert soil (4) Laterite soil
- Alluvial: Wheat and rice.
- Black: Cotton and sugarcane.
- Desert: Barley and ragi.
- Laterite: Coffee and tea.
Question: Explain the land-use pattern of India.
- The net sown area in India has decreased from 45.26% to 43.41%. This means that more and more agricultural land is being shifted to other activities. This is not a healthy trend, and must be checked. The steps taken by government has resulted in increase of net sown area to 47% in 2005-06.
- The pattern of the net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana, and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- The area under forests has increased from 18.11% in 1960-61 to 22.57% in 2000-03 and to 23% in 2005-06 yet it is far below than the scientific norms.
- The land under permanent pasture is very low, i.e., only 3.45% (Fallen to 3%). This shows the tremendous pressure of livestock population on agricultural land. Cattle are reared mainly on the farm wastes, grain chaff and a few fodder crops.
- Area under fallow land has also decreased which shows, that subsistence agriculture is being replaced by commercial agriculture.
- A part of the land is termed as waste land, and land put to other non-agricultural uses. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas, and land put to other non- agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industries, etc.
Question: Explain any four proper fanning techniques which can be used for soil conservation.
Suggest any three measures of soil conservation.
What is soil conservation? Explain any three methods of soil conservation suitable to Indian conditions.
Answer: Soil conservation includes all those measures which help in protecting the soil from erosion or degradation.
- Crop rotation: If the same crop is sown in the same field, year after year, this consumes certain nutrients from the soil making it infertile. Crop rotation can check this type of erosion.
- Settled agriculture: Checking and reducing shifting agriculture by persuading the tribal people to switch over to settled agriculture.
- Terracing and contour bunding: Terracing and contour bunding across the hill slopes is a very effective, and one of the oldest methods of soil conservation. Hill slope is cut into a number of terraces having horizontal top and steep slopes on the back and front. Contour bunding involves the construction of bank along the contour.
- Strip cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
- Shelter Belt: Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in establishing the desert in western India.