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Nationalist Movement in Indo-China: 10 SST

Question: State the contribution of Ho Chi Minh In the Freedom movement of Vietnam.
Or
Who was Ho Chi Minh? State his contribution in the freedom movement of Vietnam.
Or
Explain any four contributions of Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam’s struggle for Independence.
Or
How could you relate Communist Movement with ‘Vietnamese Nationalism’? Explain in four points.
Or
Relate communist movement with ‘Vietnamese Nationalism’ and explain.

Answer:

  1. As a leader: Ho Chi Minh, real name Nguyen Tat Thanh, Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule .
  2. Formation of Communist Party: In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist (Vietnam Cong San Dang) Party, later renamed the Indo-Chinese Communist Party. He was inspired by the militant demonstrations of the European communist parties.
  3. Chairman of Democratic Republic of Vietnam: In 1940 Japan occupied Vietnam, as part of its imperial drive to control Southeast Asia. So nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh), which came to be known as the Vietminh, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.
  4. Important symbol for unification of Vietnam: He was an important symbol forth unification of Vietnam. The importance of his role is clear from the fact that the most important route connecting north and south Vietnam was named after him.

Question: What is the Ho Chi Minh trail? Describe any three points of its importance.

Answer: The Ho Chi Minh trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads, used to transport men and materials from the north to the south during the Vietnam war.
Importance:
(i) The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the United States.
(ii) It symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources against the biggest military power.
(iii) The trail was used by about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops who came to the south each month using this trail.

Question: What was the main motive of the French to develop the Infrastructural projects in Vietnam? Explain how far did they succeed in their mission.

Answer:

  1. The basic aim of the French to develop the infrastructural projects in Vietnam was to get supply of natural resources and other essential goods.
  2. The French succeeded in their mission as­
    (i). The area under rice cultivation went from merely 274,000 hectare in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930.
    (ii).By 1930 Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    (iii).The French succeeded in linking northern and southern parts of Vietnam through rail.
    (iv).Vietnam was also linked to other nation like China, Thailand through rail.

Question: How did students in Vietnam fight against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent Vietnamese from qualifying for ‘white collar jobs’? Explain.

Answer:

  1. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.
  2. By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.
  3. Many young students went to Japan under the Go-East movement to get higher education.

Question: Why was a new education policy introduced by the French in Vietnam? What were the limitations or drawbacks of the new education policy introduced by the French in Vietnam?

Answer: Reason for New Education Policy:

  1. The elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
  2. French colonization was not based only on economic exploitation, but it was driven by the idea of a civilizing mission. Education was seen as one way to civilize the natives.

Limitations:

  1. Only the Vietnamese elites comprising a small fraction of the population were enrolled in the schools.
  2. Only a few among those admitted ultimately were allowed to pass the School-Leaving Examination. This was largely because of a deliberate policy of failing students, particularly in the final year, so that they could not qualify for the better-paid jobs. Usually, as many as two-thirds of the students were failed. In 1925, in a population of 17 million, there were less than 400 who could pass the examination.
  3. New textbooks glorified French Culture, and justified, colonial rule.
  4. In the textbooks, the Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, who were only capable of manual labour.
  5. The school children were taught that only French rule could provide a conducive atmosphere for the overall development of the Vietnamese, whereas the reality was opposite.

Question: How was education used as a weapon by the Vietnamese to fight against the colonialism? Explain.

Answer:

  1. Curriculum and locals: Vietnamese teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum framed by the French. Sometimes, there was open opposition and at other times, there was silent resistance. As the number of Vietnamese teachers increased in the lower classes, they quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.
  2. Incident of Saigon School: When a Vietnamese girl was terminated over the issue of front seat the whole school protested, and forced the authorities to take her back. It was a victory for the educated class.
  3. Education and students: Students were inspired by patriotic feelings, and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of the society. By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan. To awaken the people against the colonial government, they started publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.
  4. Education as a weapon: The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. On the other hand, the educated class wanted to use education as a means to fight against the colonial rule.
  5. Education and Vietnamark intellectuals: The French tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of the French civilization, and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. On the other hand, Vietnamese intellectuals, feared that Vietnam was losing not only the control over its territory, but also its very identity: Its own culture and customs, were being devalued, and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.
  6. The battle against French colonial education became a part of the larger battle against colonialism, and for independence.

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