Question: Analyse the circumstances which led Gandhiji to choose abolition of salt tax as the most important demand of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31 January 1930? Why was abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand? Explain.
Answer: On 31 January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.Some of these were of general interest; others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.
- The most stirring of all demands to abolish salt tax. Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike. It was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most appressive face of British rule.
- Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a most powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
- The demands were not fulfilled. So on 11th March 1930 Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march along with 78 volunteers from his Ashram in Sabarmati.
- On 6th April he reached Dandi and violated the laws by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
Question: “ Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore’ ’. Explain.
How did the idea of nationalism develop a movement to revive Indian folklore? Give three points.
- History and fictions, folklore and songs popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
- In the late nineteenth century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards, and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
- This was done to promote the traditional culture that had been corrupted, and damaged by the western forces.
- To revive the folklore, Rabindranath Tagore himself collected ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for the folk revival.
- A massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India was published by Natesa Sastri. He believed that the folklore was national literature; it was ‘the most trustworthy manifestation of people’s real thoughts and characteristics.’
Question: How flag was used to promote the spirit of nationalism among the Indians?
- During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight lotuses representing the eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing, the Hindus and the Muslims.
- By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj It was again a tricolor (red, green and white), and had a spinning wheel in the center, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
- Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Question: “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Justify the statement.
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians.
Explain the contributions of folklore, folk songs and paintings in strengthening I nationalism during the 1870’s.
How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in developing a sense of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or languages group develop the sense of collective belonging ,in India during the freedom struggle. Explain.
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians?
- United struggle: The most important factor responsible for arousing the sense of nationalism among the Indians was the united struggle against the Britishers.
- Cultural processes: There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols played a part in the making of nation.
- Bharat Mata: The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata, which was created in 1870 by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland. Inspired by the Swadeshi Movement, Rabindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata.
- Revival of Indian Folklore: The idea of nationalism was also developed by reviving the Indian Folklore.In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. This was done to promote the traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by western forces. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
- Reinterpretation of History: By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently. The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times. The nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.
Question: Describe various problems in unifying people in India by the end of the 19th century.
What were the limits of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
What are the limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Explain any four limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930.
- Problem of depressed classes: For long, the Congress had ignored the dalits or depressed classes for fear of offending the conservative high caste Hindus. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Class Association clashed with Gandhiji at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
- Wedge between Hindu-Muslims: From the mid 1920’s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha. So a large section of Muslims started keeping away from it. Each community started blaming each other for the wedge leading to communal clashes
- Separate electorates and two nation theory: Muhammad Ali Jinnah the leader of the Muslim League demanded separate electorates for the Muslims as he feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
- Muslim leaders: Many prominent Muslim leaders like Muhammad Iqbal supported separate electorates. They also proposed a two nation theory under which it was presumed that both communities belong to different nations.(v) Formation of Muslim league: Muslim League was established in 1920. The formation of Muslim League gave a vital blow to the united struggle.
- Non participation of industrial worker: The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.