Question: What is JFM?
Answer: JFM (Joint Forest Management) was a movement launched to manage and restore degraded forests by involving the local communities.
Question: Name the state which was first to pass the JFM resolution.
Question: Name any four movements which were launched by local communities for the protection of forests or wildlife.
- Chipko Movement
- Beej Bachao Andolan
- Narmada Bachao Andolan
- Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri
Question: What is biodiversity?
Answer: Biodiversity is the sum total of all the varieties of species of plants, animals and micro-organisms living on the earth. It also includes the habitat in which they live. Some scientists estimate that more than 10 million species live on our earth and some believe that this number can be more than 100 million.
Question: What is importance of forests?
“Forests play a key role in the ecological system”. Highlight the value of forests in our life.
Why is it necessary to increase the area of forest in India?
- Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are the primary producers on which all other living beings depend
- Many forest dependent communities directly depends on them for food, drink, medicine, culture, spirituality etc
- Forest provide us timber
- Forests also provide bamboo, wood for fuel, grass, charcoal, fruits, flowers etc
Question: “The diverse flora and fauna of India is under threat”. Justify by giving reasons.
- At least 10% of India’s recorded wild flora and 20% of its mammals are on the threatened list.
- The cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet, and plants like madhuca in-sign is (a wild variety of mahua) and hubbardia heptaneuron (a species of grass) have already been categorized as critical, i.e. they are on the verge of extinction.
- Many smaller animals like insects and plants have become extinct.
Question: What are Normal species? How are these different from endangered species. Give four examples.
Answer: Normal species are the species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents etc.
Whereas the endangered species are the species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. Black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, etc. are examples of endangered species.
Question: What are Vulnerable species? Give four examples.
Answer: These are the species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate such species. The examples of such species are Blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin etc.
Question: What are Rare species? Give four examples.
Answer: Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, Wild Asiatic buffalo, Desert fox and hornbill etc.
Question: What are Endemic species? Give four examples.
Answer: The species which are only found in some particular region usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. The examples of such species are the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig etc.
Question: What are Extinct species? Give four examples.
Answer: These species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. These species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the whole earth. The examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah, pink headed duck, etc.
Question: Large scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Explain.
- Since 1951, over 5,000 square kilometers of forests were cleared for river valley projects.
- Clearing of forests is still continuing because of new projects like the Sardar Sarovar Project, the Ranjit Sagar Dam Project etc. Many wildlife sanctuaries are seriously threatened due to large scale mining activities.
Question: (1) Which factor is often cited as the cause of environmental degradation in the third world countries?
(2) Mention any four factors which have led to the decline of India’s biodiversity.
- (a) Habitat destruction
(e) Environmental pollution
(f) Forest fires
Question: “Developed countries and rich people are considered the major factors for environmental degradation”. Explain.
- Developed countries consume more resources than underdeveloped or developing countries. For example an average American consumes 40 times more resources than an average Somalian.
- The rich class probably causes more ecological damage than the poor class because energy consumption level of the rich is high as compared to poor.
- Rich people use non-renewable resources on a large scale.
Question: “Grazing and fuel-wood collection are not responsible for deforestation in India”. Support the statement with suitable reasons.
- Overgrazing destroys the saplings and plants are tom out by the roots by animals
- Overgrazing also leads to soil erosion. Soil erosion is one of the important factor for deforestation
- While collecting fuel wood the locals also destroy the trees, which leads to deforestation
Question: “The conservation projects are now focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components”. Explain.
- Inclusion of small insects and other animals in planning: Under the new plans, even insects and other smaller species of animals are beginning to find a place in conservation planning
- New notifications: In the notification under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. In 1991, for the first time, plants were also added to the list, starting with six species