Question: Which crop is known as the “golden fibre”? Explain two geographical conditions essential for the cultivation of this crop. Mention any four uses.
What is known as ‘golden fibre’? Where is it grown in India and why? Describe various uses of this fibre.
- Jute is called golden fibre.
- Geographical conditions for its cultivation are as follows:
(i) Jute grows well in well-drained fertile soils of the flood plains where the soil is renewed every year.
(ii) High temperature is required during the time of growth.
- It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains.
- Therefore, it is grown in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.
Uses: It can be used to manufacture gunny bags, mats, ropes, yam, carpets and other artifacts.
Question: Differentiate between the commercial agriculture and the subsistence agriculture.
Write any four characteristics of commercial Agriculture?
- Commercial agriculture is that practice of farming in which crops are grown for trad.
- This is practised on large farms.
- This is capital intensive.
- Modern technology and implements are used. For example: The production of sugarcane in Uttar Pradesh.
- Subsistence agriculture is that practice of farming in which the farmer and his family raise crops for home consumption.
- This is practised on small farms.
- This is labour intensive.
- Old technology and old implements are used. For example: The production of wheat is some parts of India.
Question: Distinguish between:(i) Dry farming and wet farming.
Write any two features of dry farming/wet farming.
(ii) Rabi and kharif crop.
(iii) Tea and coffee.
Answer: (i).Dry Farming and Wet Farming.
- Dry farming is that farming in which moisture is maintained by raising a special type of crops.
- This is practised in dry areas of the country such as, North Western India.
- Gram and peas are the important crops.
- Wet farming is a type of farming which depends mainly upon rain.
- This type of farming is prevalent in the North, North-Eastern, Eastern India and the Western slopes of the Western Ghats.
- Rice, jute, sugar-cane, etc., are the important crops.
(ii). Rabi Crop and Kharif Crop.
- Rabi crops are sown with the beginning of winter, i.e., in the months of October-November, and are harvested in the months of March-April.
- Wheat, barley, gram and oil seeds are the major rabi crops.
- Kharif crops are sown with the onset of the monsoon, i.e., June-July, and are harvested in the beginning of winter, i.e., October-November.
- Rice, maize. millets, cotton, groundnut, etc. are the major kharif crops.
(iii) Tea and Coffee.
- Temperature: Ideal temperature for the growth of plant is 20°C to 30°C.
- Rainfall: It requires an annual rainfall of about 150-300 cm.
- Soil: The plant requires a light loamy soil.
- Producers: Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- Temperature: Ideal temperature for the growth of plant is 15°C to 28°C.
- Rainfall: It requires an annual rainfall of about 150-200 cm.
- Soil: The plant requires a red and laterite soil.
- Producers: Tamil Nadu and Kerala and Karnataka.
Question: Which are the two staple food crops of India? Compare and contrast the climatic and soil requirements of the two.
Answer: Rice and wheat are two staple food crops of India
- It requires an average temperature of 25°C with minor variations during the sowing, growing and the harvesting seasons.
- It requires rainfall above 100 cm.
- It requires a loamy and alluvial soil.
- It requires a different climate during the sowing and harvesting season. Low temperature during the period of sowing, but high temperature during the harvesting period. An average of 21°C should be maintained.
- Rainfall of 50-75 cm is sufficient.
- Loamy, dumat and black soil is required.
Question: Name any four oil-seeds produced in India. What is their economic importance?
Name any four oil-seeds produced in India. Explain the importance of oil-seeds in our day to day life.
Answer: Main oil-seeds produced in India are:
Economic importance of oil-seeds:
- Most of these are edible, and used as a cooking medium in the form of oil.
- Extracted oil is also used as raw material for manufacturing large number of items like paints, varnishes, hydrogenated oil, soaps, perfumes, lubricants, etc.
- Oil cake which is the by product, obtained after the extraction of oil from oil-seeds is an excellent cattle feed.
- Oil cake is also used as a fertilisers.
Question: Which states are the leading producers of the following horticultural crops?
(4) Apples and Apricots
- Mangoes: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
- Bananas: Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
- Grapes: Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
- Apples and Apricots: Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
Question: “Today Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition.” What are the various factors responsible for this situation?
Why is the growth rate in agriculture decelerating?
- The Indian government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in the agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation.
- Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
- Reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.
- Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture.
Question: Name any three features of Indian agriculture.
What are the factors responsible for the backwardness of Indian agriculture?
Describe any four features of agriculture in India.
- Over dependence on monsoon: Major portion of the cropped area still depends upon monsoons for irrigation. Only one- third of the cropped area is under assured irrigation.
- Subsistence agriculture: A farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmer’s household is known as subsistence farming.
- Small and scattered land holding: Due to the increasing population, the per hectare availability of land is very low. The Jand holding is also scattered.
- Lack of inputs: Most of the farmers are poor so they do not use fertilisers and high yielding varieties of seeds.
Question: Describe various technological and institutional reforms which led to the Green and White Revolution in India.
Answer: No description regarding white Revolution. Green Revolution means revolution in the field of agricultural production due to the introduction of various technological and institutional reforms.
- Agriculture was given the top priority in Five Year Plans.
- The development of HYV seeds of wheat in the early 60s, and those of rice in 70s laid the foundation of the Green Revolution in India.
- Several schemes for irrigation were undertaken, and arid and semi-arid areas were brought under cultivation.
- Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, abolition of the Zamindari system, etc., were given top priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
- Cropped insurance scheme was launched by the government to protect the farmers against losses caused by crop failure on account of natural calamities like drought, flood, hailstorm, cyclone, fire, etc.
- Easy availability of capital or investment, input through a well knit network of rural banking and small scale co-operative societies with low interest rates were other facilities provided to the farmers for the modernisation of agriculture.
Question: Compare the geographical conditions required for the production of cotton and jute.
Answer: The following geographical conditions are required for the production of cotton and jute:
- Cotton requires more than 21°C of temperature.
- 50-100 cm of rainfall is required.
- Frost free days are must during picking days.
- Deep domat (loamy) and black soil is required.
- Cotton is mainly grown in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
- Jut requires temperature of 30°C.
- Near about 150 cm of rainfall is required.
- Hot and humid climate is required.
- Well drained fertile loamy soil is required.
- Eastern states of the country are ideal for jute cultivation.
Question: How is the government helping the Indian farmers in increasing their agricultural production? Explain any four points.
Describe any four reforms brought in the Indian agriculture after independence through the efforts of the Indian government.
What initiatives have been taken by government to ensure an increase in agricultural production?
- Institutional Reforms: To increase production in agriculture, the government has introduced some institutional measures which include collectivisation, consolidation of holding, cooperation and abolition of Zamindari system.
- Comprehensive Land Development Programme: In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
- Subsidies: The government is providing huge subsidies on the agricultural inputs. At present, maximum subsidy is being given on fertilizers.
- HYV Seeds and Agriculture Universities: In order to enhance production, the government is providing HYV seeds to the farmers. Special seminars are also being held. Many new agricultural universities have been established.
- Public Procurement System and Agriculture Price Commission: Agriculture Price Commission has been set up which declares the prices of agricultural products in advance so that the farmers may know what they are going to get for their agricultural products. Government agencies like the F.C.I. (Food Corporation of India) purchase the agricultural products from the farmers.
- Crop Insurance and Agricultural Finance: As we are aware that the Indian agriculture mainly depends on nature, so high risk crops are also being insured. The government has established special banks like the NABARD to provide agricultural loans to farmers.