Question: What is plantation agriculture? Write some features of the plantation agriculture.
Describe any four characteristics of plantation agriculture.
Answer: This is a type of agriculture which involves growing and processing of a single cash crop purely meant for sale. Rubber, tea, coffee, spices, coconut and fruits are some of the important crops which come under the category of plantation agriculture.
- It is a single crop farming.
- It is a capital intensive farming, i.e., a huge amount of capital is required.
- It needs vast estates, managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, good transport facilities and a factory for processing.
- This type of agriculture has developed in areas of north-eastern India, Sub-Himalayan region, West Bengal and Nilgiri.
Question: What is shifting agriculture? Why shifting agriculture is being discouraged?
Answer: It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear the forest land and use it for growing crops. The crops are grown for 2 to 3 years, and when the fertility of the soil decreases, the farmer shifts to a new land. Dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables are the crops commonly grown in this type of farming.
It is being discouraged because:
- This leads to deforestation.
- The per hectare yield is very low.
Question: Explain the favourable geographical conditions required for the production of rice. Also mention the major rice producing states of India.
- Temperature: It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, and high humidity. This means monthly temperature of about 25°C with minor variation during the sowing, growing and harvesting season, is suitable for the growth of the plant.
- Rainfall: Rice needs abundant rainfall, i.e., more than 100 cm. It can grow in areas with less rainfall, but with assured irrigation. Rice is grown in Punjab and Haryana with the help of irrigation.
- Soil: Rice can grow in a variety of soils including silts, loams and gravels, but it is grown best in alluvial soil with a sub-soil of impervious clay. Areas of production: Rice is cultivated in almost all the states of India, but most of its cultivation is concentrated in the river valleys, deltas of rivers and the coastal plains.
The main rice producing states are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Odisha, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra.
Question: What type of climate is required for the cultivation of wheat? Name any four important wheat producing states of India.
- Temperature: Cool and moist weather during growth, and warm and dry climate during ripening is needed.
- Rainfall: 50-75 cm rainfall is required. Rainfall is necessary and beneficial, 15 days after sowing, and 15 days before ripening. A few light winter showers or assured irrigation ensures a bumper harvest.
- Soil: Light domat (loamy) soil is required. It can also be grown in black soil. Important producers: Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are the main producers of wheat.
Question: Describe three geographical requirements for maize cultivation – temperature, rainfall and soil. Name three maize producing states of India.
- Temperature: It grows well under temperature between 21°C and 27°C.
- Rainfall: It grows well in areas of 50¬100 cm of rain, and in areas of less rain, if grown under irrigation.
- Soil: It requires well drained alluvial fertile soil or red loams free from coarse materials. Important produces: Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh are the leading producers.
Question: Describe the temperature and climatic conditions required for the cultivation of sugarcane. Name two leading producers.
What geographical conditions are required for the cultivation of sugarcane? Name two largest producing states of sugarcane.
- Temperature: Sugarcane needs hot and humid climate with temperature ranging between 21°C to 27°C. Very high temperature is harmful for its growth, while low temperature slows its growth. It cannot withstand frost. Cool temperature is needed at the time of ripening.
- Rainfall: It grows best in areas receiving 75 cm to 100 cm of rainfall. Too heavy rainfall results in low sugar content.
- Soil: Sugarcane grows on well-drained fertile soil. It can grow on a variety of soils including black, alluvial, loamy and reddish loam.
- Sugarcane: But the best soil is the alluuial soil of the Ganga Plain and the black soil of southern India. Sugarcane exhausts the fertility of the soil. Hence, the use of manure is essential to ensure high yields.
- Areas of Production: Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane. The other states in the Ganga-Plain are Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
Question: Name the most important beverage crop of India. Describe the suitable climatic conditions required for its growth. Also mention the major states producing that crop.
Describe any three geographical conditions required for tea cultivation. Name any two producing states of tea.
Name the important beverage crop introduced by the British in India. Explain the geographical conditions needed for its cultivation. Write any two important states where it is grown.
Describe any four ‘ geographical conditions required for the growth of tea. Mention the two major tea producing states of South India.
Answer: Tea is the most important beverage crop of India.
- Climatic conditions:
(i) Temperature: The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub tropical climate. Tea bushes require warm and moist, frost-free climate all through the year. Tea bushes need temperature of more than 25°C.
(ii) Rainfall: Tea plant needs heavy rainfall ranging between 150 cm to 250 cm. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the year.
(iii) Soil: The plant requires a light loamy soil. The soil should be rich in humus and iron content. Tea is a soil exhausting crop, so frequent use of chemical fertilisers and manure is essential.
Major tea-producing states are Assam, West Bengal, (Hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri Districts), Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Apart from these, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea producing states in the country.
Question: Explain the favourable climatic conditions required for the production of rubber. Also mention the states producing rubber.
- Temperature: It is a tree of the tropical forests, and requires a constant high temperature above 25°C. Thus, the rubber tree cannot be grown at high altitudes.
- Rainfall: It needs heavy and well distributed rainfall throughout the year. The plant needs rainfall more than 200 cm.
- Soil: The plant requires alluvial or laterite soil. Areas of Production:
India ranks fifth among the world’s natural rubber producers. The state of Kerala is the largest producer of rubber in India. Kerala accounts for about 91% of the total area under rubber plantation. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and The Andaman and Nicobar islands including the Garo Hills of the Himalayas are the other producers.
Question: Explain the climatic conditions required for the production of cotton. Also mention the major cotton producing states of India.
- Temperature: Cotton needs a warm climate. Summer temperatures of 21°C to 27°C, and abundant sunshine is necessary during the growth of the plant. A long growing period of atleast 210 frostfree days is also necessary for the plant to mature.
- Rainfall: Moderate to light rainfall is adequate for cotton cultivation. Rainfall ranging between 50 cm to 80 cm is adequate. The crop can be successfully grown in areas of low rainfall with the help of irrigation.
- Soil: Cotton can be grown on a variety of soils but the black cotton soil of the Deccan Plateau which has the ability to retain moisture is most suitable. It also grows well in alluvial soils of the Satluj-Ganga Plain.
- Areas of Production: The leading cotton producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Punjab and Haryana grow the long staple variety.