Question: Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
Answer: Organic farming is much in vogue today because it is practised without factor made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. Hence, it does not affect environment in a negative manner. Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops. This will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously. Because fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane. India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high-value crops.
Question: How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry?
Answer: Jute: It is known as the golden fibre. Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year. High temperature is required during the time of growth. It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts. Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.
Question: Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
Answer: This kharif crop requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall over 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tube-wells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Question: Why the Indian fanners should grow more pulses?
- India is the one of the largest consumer of pulses as these are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
- Pulses need less moisture and can survive even in dry conditions.
- Pulses are leguminous crops as these help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
Question: Which fibre crop is known as golden fibre?s Why is the golden fibre losing its market? Why the products produced from golden fibre be promoted?
Answer: Jute is known as golden fibre. Jute products are loosing market because of high cost. Jute products should be promoted because these are eco-friendly.
Question: Explain any four factors which have hindered the pace of agricultural development in India.
- Overcrowding in agriculture: The real problem of Indian agriculture is that there are too many people who depend on agriculture. Since 1901, the proportion of people dependent on agriculture has almost remained constant, i.e., 70%.
- Problem of inputs: Indian agriculture suffered because of the inadequacy of finance, seeds, fertilizers, marketing, transportation, etc.
- Size of landholdings: The average size of holding in India is very low, less than 2 hectares or 5 acres. Not only agricultural holdings are small, but they are also fragmented. In certain parts of the country, plots of land have become so small that it is impossible to use modern machinery.
- Over dependence on nature: In spite of the development of sources of irrigation, most of the farmers in large parts of the country still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility in order to carry on their agriculture.
Question: “The decline share of agriculture in the GDP is a matter of serious concern”. Explain.
- More than half the population of India’s work force is employed by the farm sector.
- Any decline in the share of agriculture means low production of foodgrains this may lead to food shortage.
- Any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of the economy having wider implications for society.
Question: Why is agriculture called the mainstay of Indian economy?
What is the importance of agriculture in Indian economy?
- Agriculture is the mainstay of Indian economy because about 60% of our population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture.
- It provides raw materials to the industries.
- India earns foreign exchange by exporting agricultural products.
- It contributes about 29% to the Gross Domestic Product.
- It provides food to over 1210.2 million population.
Question: What is primitive (subsistence) farming? Write any four features of subsistence farming.
Why is subsistence agriculture still practised in certain parts of the country? Give four reasons.
Answer: A farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmer’s household is known as subsistence farming.
- Old technology and traditional implements are used.
- Agricultural fields are small and farmers possess scattered land holdings.
- Most of the farmers are poor, and do not use fertilisers and HYV seeds.
- The overall productivity is very low.
Question: What is intensive farming? Write some features of intensive farming.
Why is there enormous pressure on land in Intensive Subsistence Farming?
Answer: Intensive farming: It is a type of farming in which the agricultural production is increased by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
- HYV seeds and modern inputs are used to increase the production.
- More than one crop is cultivated during a year.
- It is practised in thickly populated areas.
- The per hectare yield is very high.